The purity of food-grade phosphates is defined by individual monographs in the Food Chemicals Codex for foods manufactured and destined for the United States, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. Many other countries follow those standards established by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. The food-grade phosphates (calcium, sodium, and potassium salts of phosphoric acid) impart numerous physicochemical properties in foods, such as pH adjustment, buffering, protein dispersion, moisture adsorption, ion exchange, sequestration of minerals, flavor, improved whipping, foam stability, cryoprotection, and texture development. These ingredients are commonly used in value-added meat, poultry, and seafood products; bakery and cereal products; dairy-based foods; some vegetables; beverages; and some sauces and dressings. The use of phosphates in the United States is regulated by the USDA in meat and poultry (9CFR), and most recently catfish, and by FDA in all other foods (21CFR). This chapter will focus on the uses and functions of food-grade phosphates and phosphoric acid in foods.
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Lampila, L.E., McMillin, K.W. (2017). Phosphorus Additives in Food Processing. In: Gutiérrez, O., Kalantar-Zadeh, K., Mehrotra, R. (eds) Clinical Aspects of Natural and Added Phosphorus in Foods. Nutrition and Health. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-6566-3_6
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