Gardner RH (1999) RULE: a program for the generation of random maps and the analysis of spatial patterns. In: Klopatek JM, Gardner RH (eds) Landscape ecological analysis: issues and applications. Springer, New York, pp 280–303
Gardner RH, Engelhardt KAM (2008) Spatial processes that maintain biodiversity in plant communities. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 9:211–228
*Gardner RH, Milne BT, Turner MG, O’Neill RV (1987) Neutral models for the analysis of broad-scale landscape pattern. Landsc Ecol 1:19–28. This paper introduces the concept of using neutral landscape models to explore the effects of ecological processes on landscape pattern. Comparisons between randomly generated maps and USGS land use data maps reveal more aggregated clusters in the latter, suggesting the importance of processes such as disturbance in determining landscape structure. The existence of critical thresholds in landscape connectivity was also explored in the analysis of neutral landscapes.
*Gardner RH, Urban DL (2007) Neutral models for testing landscape hypotheses. Landsc Ecol 22:15–29. Led by the author of the original NLM paper published in 1987 in Landscape Ecology, this is a good summary of QRULE and the current state of these models.
*Gardner RH (2011) Neutral models and the analysis of landscape structure. In: Jopp, Reuter H, Breckling B (eds) Modelling complex ecological dynamics. Springer, New York, pp 215–229. In addition to providing an overview of QRULE software, this chapter explains hypothesis testing and options for statistical tests with NLMs. This chapter is one of many in a book explaining a wide variety of ecological models.
Gergel SE (2002) Assessing cumulative impacts of levees and dams on floodplain ponds: a neutral terrain approach. Ecol Appl 12:1740–1754
Gergel SE, Carpenter SR, Stanley EH (2005) Do dams and levees impact nitrogen cycling? Simulating the effects of flood alterations on floodplain denitrification. Glob Chang Biol 11(8):1352–1367
Graves TA, Wasserman TN, Ribeira MC et al (2012) The influence of landscape characteristics and home-range size on the quantification of landscape-genetics relationships. Landsc Ecol 27:253–266
Pearson SM, Gardner RH (1997) Neutral models: useful tools for understanding landscape patterns. In: Bisonnette JA (ed) Wildlife and landscape ecology: effects of pattern and scale. Springer, New York, pp 215–230
*Phillips JD (2007) The perfect landscape. Geomorphology 84:159–169. Argues that the particular combination of factors affecting landscape development (e.g., topography, geology, climate, landscape and disturbance history, etc.) are diverse and unique producing outcomes that can not be deterministically predicted. Consideration of the suite of possible is required if landscape form and function is to be understood
Plotnick RE, Gardner RH (1993) Lattices and landscapes. In: Gardner RH (ed) Lectures on mathematics in the life sciences: predicting spatial effects in ecological systems. American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, pp 129–157
Plotnick RE, Prestegaard KL (1995) Fractal and multifractal models and methods in stratigraphy. In: Barton CC, LaPointe PR (eds) Fractals and their use in the petroleum industry. Plenum, New York, pp 73–96
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Wiens JA, Crist TO, With KA et al (1995) Fractal patterns of insect movement in microlandscape mosaics. Ecology 76:663–666
With KA (1994) Using fractal analysis to assess how species perceive landscape structure. Landsc Ecol 9:25–36
*With KA, King AW (1997) The use and misuse of neutral landscape models in ecology. Oikos 79:219–229. The applications of neutral models to problems in landscape ecology are reviewed here. The authors discuss the appropriateness of using neutral landscape models to infer relationships between pattern and process. The paper also discusses misuses of neutral models, describing analyses that mistakenly conclude a direct causal connection between pattern and process.
With KA, Cadaret SJ, Davis C (1999) Movement responses to patch structure in experimental fractal landscapes. Ecology 80:1340–1353