Büttner A, Thieme D. Side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids: pathological findings and structure–activity relationships. In: Thieme D, Hemmersbach P, editors. Doping in sports: biochemical principles, effects and analysis. Berlin: Springer; 2010. p. 459–84.
Hartgens F, Kuipers H. Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes. Sports Med. 2004;34(8):513–54.
Sjöqvist F, Garle M, Rane A. Use of doping agents, particularly anabolic steroids, in sports and society. Lancet. 2008;371(9627):1872–82.
Christakopoulos A, Ericsson M, Garle M, Villén T, Beck O. Anabolic androgenic steroids are more common in society than in sports. Lakartidningen. 2013;110(39–40):1732–4.
Abrahin OSC, de Sousa EC, Santos AM. Prevalence of the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in Brazil: a systematic review. Subst Use misuse. 2014;49(9):1156–62.
Stubbe JH, Chorus AM, Frank LE, Hon O, Heijden PG. Prevalence of use of performance enhancing drugs by fitness centre members. Drug Test Anal. 2014;6(5):434–8.
Strauss RH, Liggett MT, Lanese RR. Anabolic steroid use and perceived effects in ten weight-trained women athletes. J Am Med Assoc. 1985;253(19):2871–3.
Yesalis CE, Kennedy NJ, Kopstein AN, Bahrke MS. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States. JAMA. 1993;270(10):1217–21.
Pereira HMG, Sardela VF. Stimulant doping agents used in Brazil: prevalence, detectability, analytical implications, and challenges. Subst Use Misuse. 2014;49(9):1098–114.
Thorlindsson T, Halldorsson V. Sport, and use of anabolic androgenic steroids among Icelandic high school students: a critical test of three perspectives. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2010;5:32.
Dunn M, White V. The epidemiology of anabolic–androgenic steroid use among Australian secondary school students. J Sci Med Sport. 2011;14(1):10–4.
Johnston L, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE. Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2011. Volume I: secondary school students. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan; 2012.
Pärssinen M, Kujala U, Vartiainen E, Sarna S, Seppala T. Increased premature mortality of competitive powerlifters suspected to have used anabolic agents. Int J Sports Med. 2000;21(3):225–7.
Petersson A, Garle M, Granath F, Thiblin I. Morbidity and mortality in patients testing positively for the presence of anabolic androgenic steroids in connection with receiving medical care: a controlled retrospective cohort study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2006;81(3):215–20.
Santora LJ, Marin J, Vangrow J, Minegar C, Robinson M, Mora J, Frieds G. Coronary calcification in body builders using anabolic steroids. Prev Card. 2006;9(4):198–201.
Paolo M D, Agozzino M, Toni C, Luciani AB, Molendini L, Scaglione M, Arbustini E. Sudden anabolic steroid abuse-related death in athletes. Int J Cardiol. 2007;114(1):114–7.
Yesalis CE, Bahrke MS. Anabolic-androgenic steroids. Sports Med. 1995;19(5):326–40.
Maravelias C, Dona A, Stefanidou M, Spiliopoulou C. Adverse effects of anabolic steroids in athletes. A constant threat. Toxic Lett. 2005;158(3):167–75.
Melnik B, Jansen T, Grabbe S. Abuse of anabolic‐androgenic steroids and bodybuilding acne: an underestimated health problem. J Deut Dermat Gesell. 2007;5(2):110–7.
Casavant MJ, Blake K, Griffith J, Yates A, Copley LM. Consequences of use of anabolic androgenic steroids. Ped Clin N Am. 2007;54(4):677–90.
Wu FCW. Endocrine aspects of anabolic steroids. Clin Chem. 1997;43(7):1289–92.
Clark AS, Costine BA, Jones BL, Kelton-Rehkopf MC, Meerts SH, Nutbrown-Greene LL, Henderson LP. Sex-and age-specific effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on reproductive behaviors and on GABAergic transmission in neuroendocrine control regions. Brain Res. 2006;1126(1):122–38.
Elliot DL, Goldberg L. Women and anabolic steroids. Anab Steroids Sport Exerc. 2000;2:225–46.
Burger HG. Androgen production in women. Fertil Steril. 2002;77(4):3–5.
Basaria S, Wahlstrom JT, Dobs AS. Anabolic-androgenic steroid therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(11):5108–17.
Burger HG. Androgen production in women. Fertil Steril. 2002;77(4):3–5.
Judd HL, Lucas WE, Yen SS. Effect of oophorectomy on circulating testosterone and androstenedione levels in patients with endometrial cancer. Am J Obs Gynecol. 1974;118(6):793–8.
Obasanjo IO, Cline JM, Schmotzer S, Weaver DS. Nandrolone decanoate causes pathologic changes in the uterus of surgically postmenopausal female cynomolgus macaques. Menopause. 1998;5(3):163–8.
Sprando RL, Collins TF, Black TN, Olejnik N, Grundel E, Ruggles DI. Effects of androstenedione on in utero development in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2004;42(6):917–24.
Rubiera-Gerez JR, Frei F, Camargo IC. Histological assessment of ovaries and uterus of rats subjected to nandrolone decanoate treatment. Contraception. 2005;72:77–80.
Cherici-Camargo IC, Barreiros-De Souza R, Mesquita S, Chuffa LG, Frei F. Ovarian histology and follicular score in female rats treated with nandrolone decanoate and submitted to physical effort. Acta Biol Hung. 2009;60(3):253–61.
Cherici-Camargo IC, Gaspar ALC, Frei F, Mesquita SD. Effects of androgenic anabolic steroids on the uterus and reproductive parameters of adult female rats. Rev Bras Ginecol Obs. 2009;31(9):453–60.
De Almeida-Chuffa LG, de Souza RB, Frei F, Mesquita S, Cherici-Camargo IC. Nandrolone decanoate and physical effort: histological and morphometrical assessment in adult rat uterus. Anatom Record. 2011;294(2):335–41.
Karbalay-Doust S, Noorafshan A, Ardekani FM, Mirkhani H. The reversibility of sperm quality after discontinuing nandrolonendecanoate in adult male rats. Asian J Androl. 2007;9:235–9.
Bordbar H, Mesbah F, Talaei T, Dehghani F, Mirkhani H. Modulatory effect of gonadotropins on rats’ ovaries after nandrolone decanoate administration: a stereological study. Iran J Med Sci. 2014;39(1):44–50.
Howe GR, Morello CJ. Effects of an anabolic steroid on reproduction in female rats. Steroid. 1985;45(6):495–501.
Bronson FH, Nguyen KQ, Delarosa J. Effect of anabolic steroid on physiological characteristics of female mice. Physiol Behav. 1996;59:49–55.
Korkia P, Stimson GV. Indications of prevalence, practice and effects of anabolic steroid use in Great Britain. Int J Sports Med. 1997;18(7):557–62.
Blasberg ME, Langan CJ, Clark AS. The effects of alphathyltestosterone, methandrostenolone and nandrolone decanoate on the rat estrous cycle. Physiol Behav. 1997;61:265–72.
Graham S, Kennedy M. Recent developments in the toxicology of anabolic steroids. Drug safety. 1990;5(6):458–76.
Kao LW, Weisz J. Direct effect of testosterone and its 5alpha-reduced metabolites on pituitary LH and FSH release in vitro: change in pituitary responsiveness to hypothalamic extract. Endocrinology. 1975;96(2):253–60.
Strauss JF, Martinez F, Kiriakidou M. Placental steroid hormone synthesis: unique features and unanswered questions. Biol Reprod. 1996;54(2):303–11.
Penatti CA, Oberlander JG, Davis MC, Porter DM, Henderson LP. Chronic exposure to anabolic androgenic steroids alters activity and synaptic function in neuroendocrine control regions of the female mouse. Neuropharmacology. 2011;61(4):653–64.
Friedl KE, Yesalis CE. Self-Treatment of Gynecomastia in Bodybuilders Who Use Anabolic Steroids. Case Reports. Phys Sportsmed. 1989;17(3):67–71.
Ruiz-Cortés ZT. Gonadal sex steroids: production, action and interactions in mammals. In: Ostojic SM, editor. Steroids—from physiology to clinical medicine. Rijeka: Intech; 2012. doi:10.5772/46119.
Anderson E. In vivo and in vitro effects of androgens on rat ovarian granulosa cells. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;160(4):782–8.
Anderson E, Little B, Lee GS. Androgen-induced changes in rat ovarian granulosa cells in vitro. Tiss Cell. 1987;19(2):217–34.
Mobini-Far HR, Ågren G, Lindqvist AS, Marmendal M, Fahlke C, Thiblin I. Administration of the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate to female rats causes alterations in the morphology of their uterus and a reduction in reproductive capacity. Eur J Obs Gynec Repr Biol. 2007;131(2):189–97.
Karbalay-Doust S, Noorafshan A. Stereological estimation of ovarian oocyte volume, surface area and number: application on mice treated with nandrolone decanoate. Folia Histochem et Cytobiol. 2012;50(2):275–9.
Bassindale T, Cowan DA, Dale S, Hutt AJ, Leeds AR, Wheeler MJ, Kicmna AT. Effects of oral administration of androstenedione on plasma androgens in young women using hormonal contraception. J Clin Endoc Met. 2004;89:6030–8.
Triemstra JL, Wood RI. Testosterone self-administration in female hamsters. Behav Brain Res. 2004;154(1):221–9.
Bento-Silva MT, Martins MDCDC, Torres-Leal FL, Barros TL, Carvalho ILDNF, Carvalho Filho HA, Almeida FRDC. Effects of administering testosterone undecanoate in rats subjected to physical exercise: effects on the estrous cycle, motor behavior and morphology of the liver and kidney. Braz J Pharm Sci. 1985;46(1):79–89.
Kicman AT. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids. BJ Pharm. 2008;154(3):502–21.
Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA. Medical issues associated with anabolic steroid use: are they exaggerated? J Sports Sci Med. 2006;5(2):182–93.
Clark AS, Blasberg ME, Brandling-Bennett EM. Stanozolol, oxymetholone, and testosterone cypionate effects on the rat estrous cycle. Physiol Behav. 1998;63(2):287–95.
Malarkey WB, Strauss RH, Leizman DJ, Liggett M, Demers LM. Endocrine effects in female weight lifters who self-administer testosterone and anabolic steroids. Am J Obs Gynec. 1991;165(5):1385–90.
Franke WW, Berendonk B. Hormonal doping and androgenization of athletes: a secret program of the German democratic republic government. Clin Chem. 1997;43(7):1262–79.
Ungerleider S. Faust’s gold: inside the East German doping machine. New York: Macmillan; 2001.
Spitzer G. Ranking number 3 in the world: how the addiction to doping changed sport in the GDR. In: Spitzer G, editor. Doping and doping control in Europe. Aachen: Meyer & Meyer Sport; 2006. p. 57–77.
Prendergast HM, Bannen T, Erickson TB, Honore KR. The toxic torch of the modern olympic games. Veter Hum Toxic. 2003;45(2):97–102.