Advertisement

Torticollis and Head Oscillations

  • Michael C. Brodsky
Chapter

Abstract

Congenital anomalies of the optic disc underlie many cases of decreased vision, strabismus, and nystagmus in childhood [54, 151]. A comprehensive evaluation necessitates an understanding of the ophthalmoscopic features, associated neuro-ophthalmologic findings, pathogenesis, and appropriate ancillary studies for each anomaly [46]. The subclassification of different forms of colobomatous defects on the basis of their ocular and systemic associations has further refined our ability to predict the likelihood of associated central nervous system (CNS) anomalies solely on the basis of the appearance of the optic disc [46]. The widespread availability of modern neuroimaging has refined the ability to identify subtle associated CNS anomalies and to prognosticate neurodevelopmental and endocrinological problems [46]. Genetic analysis has now advanced the understanding of some anomalies. It has been recognized [194, 218, 333] that many of these disorders are accompanied by some degree of peripheral retinal nonperfusion.

Keywords

Head Tilt Head Turn Spasmodic Torticollis Deformational Plagiocephaly Superior Oblique Muscle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Adams RD, Lyon G. Neurology of hereditary metabolic diseases of children. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1982. p. 65.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aiba K, Yokochi K, Ishikawa T. A case of ataxic diplegia, mental retardation, congenital nystagmus, and abnormal auditory brain-stem responses showing only waves I and II. Brain Dev. 1986;8:630–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Angelini L, Nardocci N, Rumi V, et al. Idiopathic dystonia with onset in childhood. J Neurol. 1989;236:319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Angelini L, Rumi V, Lamperi E, et al. Transient paroxysmal dystonia in infancy. Neuropediatrics. 1988;19:171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Archer SM. Abnormal head posture in patients with third and sixth nerve palsy. Am Orthopt J. 1995;45:34–43.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arthur BW. Abnormal head posture in the A and V syndromes. Am Orthopt J. 1995;45:19–23.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Averbuch-Heller L, Rottach KG, Zivotofsky AZ, et al. Torsional eye movements in patients with skew deviation and spasmodic torticollis: responses to static and dynamic head roll. Neurology. 1997;48:506–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bagolini B, Campos EC, Chiesi C. Plagiocephaly causing superior oblique deficiency and ocular torticollis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1982;100:1093–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ballock RT, Song KM. The prevalence of nonmuscular causes of torticollis in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 1996;16:500–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bayraker B, Aysun S, Firat M. Arteriovenous fistula: a cause of torticollis. Pediatr Neurol. 1999;20:146–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Benton JW, Nellhaus G, Huttenlocher PR, et al. The bobble-headed doll syndrome. Neurology. 1966;16:725–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Betchel RT, Kushner BJ, Morton GV. The relationship between dissociated vertical divergence (DVD) and head tilts. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1996;33:303–6.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blumkin L, Seshinsky-Silver E, Michelson M, et al. Paroxysmal tonic upward gaze as a presentation of de-novo mutations in CACNA1A. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2015;19:292–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bohnsack BL, Bhatt R, Kahana A. Nonophthalmic symptoms secondary to ocular torticollis from severe blepharoptosis: an underappreciated but treatable condition. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;28:e36–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boisen E. Torticollis caused by infratentorial tumor: three cases. Br J Psychiatry. 1979;134:306–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Borcean ID, Bărar A. Understanding ocular torticollis in children. Oftalmologia. 2011;55:10–26.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boutros GS, Al-Mateen M. Non-ophthalmological causes of torticollis. Am Orthopt J. 1995;45:68–73.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bower CM, Martin PF. Diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of pediatric sensorineural hearing loss. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993;1:161–6.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brandt T, Dieterich M. Skew deviation with ocular torsion: a vestibular brainstem sign of topographic diagnostic value. Ann Neurol. 1993;33:528–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brandt T, Dieterich M. The vestibular cortex. Its locations, functions, and disorders. Otolith Function in Spatial Orientation and Movement. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;871:293–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Braun V, Richter HP. Selective peripheral denervation for the treatment of spasmodic torticollis. Neurosurgery. 1994;35:58–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bressman SB, Heiman GA, Nygaard TG, et al. A study of idiopathic torsion dystonia in a non-Jewish family: evidence for genetic heterogeneity. Neurology. 1994;44:283–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brodsky MC. Congenital downbeat nystagmus. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1996;33:191–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brodsky MC. Dissociated vertical divergence: a righting reflex gone wrong. Arch Ophthalmol. 1999;17:1216–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Brodsky MC. DVD remains a moving target! J AAPOS. 1999;3:325–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Brodsky MC. Vision-dependent tonus mechanisms of torticollis: an evolutionary perspective. Am Orthopt J. 1999;50:158–62.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brodsky MC. Vertical visual disparity and the human oblique muscles. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2001;16:1327–8.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Brodsky MC. Latent heliotropism: our past is always with us. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86:1327–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Brodsky MC. Visuo-vestibular eye movements: infantile strabismus in three dimensions. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005;123:837–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brodsky MC. Vertical strabismus: diagnosis from the ground up. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:992–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brodsky MC, Donahue SP, Vaphiades M, and Brandt T. Skew deviation revisited. Surv Ophthalmol. 2006;51:105–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brodsky MC, Fray KJ, Glasier CM. Perinatal cortical and subcortical visual loss: mechanisms of injury and associated ophthalmologic signs. Ophthalmology. 2002;109:85–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Brodsky MC, Holmes JM. Torsional augmentation for the treatment of lateropulsion and torticollis in partial ocular tilt reaction. J AAPOS. 2012;16:141–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Brodsky MC, Jenkins R, Nucci P. Unexplained head tilt following surgical treatment of congenital esotropia: a postural manifestation of dissociated vertical divergence. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:268–72.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Brodsky MC, Karlsson V. Perinatal head tilt in congenital superior oblique palsy. J Neuroophthalmol. 2009;29:76–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Brodsky MC, Keating GF. Chiasmal glioma in a child with spasmus nutans: a cautionary note. J Neuroophthalmol. 2014;34:274–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brodsky MC, Wright KW. Infantile esotropia with nystagmus: a treatable cause of oscillatory head movements in children. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:1079–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bronstein AM, Rudge P. The vestibular system in abnormal head postures and in spasmodic torticollis. Adv Neurol. 1988;50:493–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brown JB, McDowell F. Wryneck facial distortion prevented by resection of fibrosed sternomastoid muscle in infancy and childhood. Ann Surg. 1950;131:721.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Busch MT, Westin GW. Muscular torticollis. Orthop Consult. 1988;9:8–12.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cafarotti A, Bascietto C, Salvatore R, et al. A 6-month old boy with uncontrollable dystonic posture of the neck: Sandifer syndrome. Pediatr Ann. 2014;43:17–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Calado R, Monteiiro JP. Transient idiopathic dystonia of infancy. Acta Paediatr. 2011;100:624–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Caldeira JA. Abnormal head posture: an ophthalmologic approach. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 2000;15:237–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Calhoun KH. Perilymph fistula. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1992;118:693–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Campos EC. Ocular torticollis. Int Ophthalmol. 1983;6:49–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Canale ST, Griffen DW, Hubbard CN. Congenital muscular torticollis. J Bone Joint Surg. 1982;64:810–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Carl JR, Optican LM, Chu FC, et al. Head shaking and vestibuloocular reflex in congenital nystagmus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1985;26:1043–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ceulemans B, van Rhijn J, Kenis S, et al. Opisthotonus and intrathecal treatment with baclofen (ITB) in children. Eur J Pediatr. 2007;167:641–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cheng JC, Au AW. Infantile torticollis: a review of 624 cases. J Pediatr Orthop. 1994;14:802–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cheng JC, Tang SP, Chen TM, et al. The clinical presentation and outcome of treatment of congenital muscular torticollis in infants: a study of 1,086 cases. J Pediatr Surg. 2000;35:1091–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chirurgi R, Kahlon S. Isolated torticollis may present as an atypical presentation of meningitis. Case Rep Emerg Med. 2012;193543. doi: 10.1155/2012/193545.
  52. 52.
    Chuang T, Gou W, Huo DM, et al. Skew ocular deviation: a catastrophic sign of MRI of fetal glioblastoma. Childs Nerv Syst. 2003;19:371–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Clark JT. Approach to the patient with an abnormal head posture. Am Orthopt J. 1995;45:2–6.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cleeves L, Findley LJ, Marsden CD. Odd tremors. In: Marsden CD, Fahn S, editors. Movement disorders 3. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1994. p. 446.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cogan DG. Congenital nystagmus. Can J Ophthalmol. 1967;2:4–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cogan DG, Chu FC, Reingold DB. Ocular signs of cerebellar disease. Arch Ophthalmol. 1982;100:755–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cogan DG, Norton EW. Spasmus nutans: a clinical study of twenty cases followed two years or more since onset. Arch Ophthalmol. 1965;442–446.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cohen RL, Moore S. Primary dissociated vertical deviation. Am Orthopt J. 1980;30:106–7.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Coker SB. Bobble-headed doll syndrome due to trapped fourth ventricle and aqueduct. Pediatr Neurol. 1986;2:115–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Collins A, Jankovic J. Botulinum toxin injection for congenital muscular torticollis presenting in children and adults. Neurology. 2006;67:1083–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cotton DG, Newman CG. Dystonic reactions to phenothiazine derivatives. Arch Dis Child. 1966;41:551–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Courchesne E, Karns CM, Davis HR, et al. Unusual brain growth patterns in early life in patients with autistic disorder: an MRI study. Neurology. 2001;57:245–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Courchesne E, Townsend J, Saitoh O. The brain in infantile autism: posterior fossa structures are abnormal. Neurology. 1994;44:214–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Coventry MB, Harris LE. Congenital muscular torticollis in infancy. J Bone Joint Surg. 1959;5:815–22.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Craig FW, Schunk JE. Retropharyngeal abscess in children: clinical presentation, utility of imaging, and current management. Pediatrics. 2003;111:1394–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Crone RA. Alternating hyperphoria. Br J Ophthalmol. 1954;38:591–604.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Crone RA. Visual acuity and torticollis. Neth Ophthalmol Soc. 1968;156:6–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Cruysberg JR, Willemsen MA, van Moli-Ramirez NG, et al. The “overlooking” phenomenon of children with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Neuroophthalmology. 2007;31. [abstract issue].Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Daentzer D, Stüder D, Wirth CJ. Muscular torticollis [article in German]. Oper Orthop Traumatol. 2010;22:177–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    de Brito Heenriques JG, Henriques KS, Filho GP, et al. Boble-head doll syndrome associated with Dandy-Walker syndrome. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2007;107:248–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    De Chalain TM, Park S. Torticollis associated with positional plagiocephaly: a growing epidemic. J Craniofac Surg. 2005;16:411–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    de Decker W. Rotatischer Kestenbaum an geraden Augenmuskeln. Z Prakt Augenheilkd. 1990;1:111–4.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Dell S. Further observations on the “bobble-headed doll syndrome”. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1981;44:1046–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Dell’Osso LF, Daroff RB. Abnormal head position and head motion associated with congenital nystagmus. In: Keller EL, Zee DS, editors. Adaptive processes in visual and oculomotor systems. Oxford: Pergamon; 1986. p. 473–8.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Dell’Osso LF, van der Steen J, Steinman RM, et al. Foveation dynamics in congenital nystagmus. II: smooth pursuit. Doc Ophthalmol. 1992;9:25–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Demer JL. Abnormal head posture in restrictive strabismus. Am Orthopt J. 1995;45:50–9.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Deonna T, Dubey B. Bobble-headed doll syndrome. Helv Paediatr Acta. 1976;31:221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Dhir SP, Shisku MW, Krewi A. Ocular involvement in histidinemia. Ophthalmic Paediatr Genet. 1987;8:175–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Diamond GR, Katowita JA, Whitaker LA, et al. Ocular and adnexal complications of unilateral orbital advancement for plagiocephaly. Arch Ophthalmol. 1987;105:381–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dieterich M, Brandt T. Ocular torsion and tilt of subjective visual vertical are sensitive brainstem signs. Ann Neurol. 1993;33:292–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Dieterich M, Bucher SF, Seelos KC, et al. Horizontal or vertical optokinetic stimulation activates visual motion-sensitive ocular motor and vestibular cortex areas with right hemispheric dominance. Brain. 1998;121:1479–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Do TT. Congenital muscular torticollis: current concepts and review of treatment. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2006;18:26–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Donahue SP, Haun AK. Exotropia and face turn in children with homonymous hemianopia. J Neuroophthalmol. 2007;27:304–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Donahue SP, Lavin PJ, Hamed LM. Tonic ocular tilt reaction simulating a superior oblique palsy: diagnostic confusion with the 3-step test. Arch Ophthalmol. 1999;117:347–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Donnai D. A further patient with the Pitt-Rogers-Danks syndrome of mental retardation, unusual face, and intrauterine growth retardation. Am J Med Genet. 1986;24:29–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Dorland’s medical dictionary. 27th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1988, p. 1734.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Drigo P, Carli G, Laverda AM. Benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy. Brain Dev. 2000;22:169–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    DuBois LG. Abnormal head posture in infantile esotropia. Am Orthopt J. 1995;45:14–8.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Duke-Elder S. System of ophthalmology, Ocular motility and strabismus, vol. 6. St. Louis: CV Mosby; 1973.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Duke-Elder ST. System of ophthalmology, vol. 6. London: Henry Klimpton; 1990. p. 680.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Duman O, Aralaflmak A, Duranoğlu Y, et al. Torticollis secondary to monocular viewing in an infant with unilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007;49:874–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dumitrescu AV, Moga DC, Longmuir SQ, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of abnormal head posture in children with Down syndrome: a 20-year retrospective study. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1859–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Eviatar L. Benign paroxysmal torticollis. Pediatr Neurol. 1994;11:72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Feng YK, Liu XQ, Sha Y, et al. Infantile spasms. A retrospective study of 105 cases. Chin Med J (Engl). 1991;104:416–21.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Fenichel GM. Clinical pediatric neurology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1993, pp. 1–43, 285–301.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Fishman RA. Neurological aspects of magnesium metabolism. Arch Neurol. 1965;12:562–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Forssman B. A study of congenital nystagmus. Acta Otolaryngol. 1964;57:429–49.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Fredrick DR, Mulliken JB, Robb RM. Ocular manifestations of deformational frontal plagiocephaly. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1990;30:92–5.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gamio S. Bielschowsky head tilt test. Arch Chil Oftal. 2006;63:63–8.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Giffin NJ, Benton P, Goadsby PJ. Benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy: four new cases and linkage to CACNA1A mutation. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2002;44:490–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gilbert GJ. Familial spasmodic torticollis. Neurology. 1977;27:11–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Gloor P, Quesney F, Ives J, et al. Significance of direction of head turning during seizures. Neurology. 1987;37:1092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Görke W, Pendl G, Pandle CH. Spinal muscular trophy in a boy with head-nodding resulting from a large septum pellucidum cyst. Neuropediatrics. 1975;6:190–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Good WV. Behaviors of visually impaired children. Semin Ophthalmol. 1991;6:158–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Good WV. Childhood hemianopia: the bigger picture. J AAPOS. 1997;1:189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Goodman CR, Chabner E, Guyton DL. Should early strabismus surgery be performed for ocular torticollis to prevent facial asymmetry? J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1995;32:162–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Gote H, Gregersen E, Rindziunski E. Exotropia and panoramic vision compensating for an occult congenital homonymous hemianopia: a case report. Binocul Vis Eye Muscle Surg Q. 1993;8:129–32.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Gottlob I, Zubcov AA, Wizov SS, et al. Signs distinguishing spasmus nutans (with and without central nervous system lesions) from congenital nystagmus. Ophthalmology. 1990;97:1166–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Gottlob I, Zubcov AA, Wizov SS, et al. Head nodding is compensatory in spasmus nutans. Ophthalmology. 1992;99:1024–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Gottlob I, Reinecke RD. Eye and head movements in patients with achromatopsia. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1994;232:392–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Graf W, Meyer DL. Central mechanisms counteract visually induced tonus asymmetries: a study of ocular responses to unilateral illumination in goldfish. J Comp Physiol. 1983;150:473–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Greenberg MF, Pollard ZF. Ocular plagiocephaly: ocular torticollis with skull and facial asymmetry. Ophthalmology. 2000;107:173–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Gresty MA, Barratt NG, Page NG, et al. Assessment of the vestibulo-ocular reflexes in congenital nystagmus. Ann Neurol. 1985;17:129–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Gresty MA, Ell JJ. Spasmus nutans or congenital nystagmus? Classification according to objective criteria. Br J Ophthalmol. 1981;65:510–1 [Letter].PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Gresty M, Halmagyi GM. Head nodding associated with idiopathic childhood nystagmus. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1981;374:614–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Gresty M, Leech J, Sanders M, et al. A study of head and eye movement in spasmus nutans. Br J Ophthalmol. 1976;60:652–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Guyton DL. Clinical assessment of ocular torsion. Am Orthopt J. 1983;33:7–15.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Guyton DL, Cheeseman EW, Ellis FJ, et al. Dissociated vertical deviation: an exaggerated normal movement used to damp cyclovertical latent nystagmus. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1998;96:389–429.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Halmagyi GM, Brandt TH, Dieterich M, et al. Tonic contraversive ocular tilt reaction due to unilateral meso-diencephalic lesion. Neurology. 1990;40:1503–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Haque S, Bilal Shafi BBB, Kaleem M. Imaging of torticollis in children. Radiographics. 2012;32:557–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Havertape SA, Cruz OA. Abnormal head posture associated with high hyperopia. J AAPOS. 1998;2:12–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Hawley JS, Weiner WJ. Psychogenic dystonia and peripheral trauma. Neurology. 2011;77:496–502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hazlett HC, Poe M, Gerig G, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging and head circumference study of brain size in autism: birth through two years of age. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62:1366–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Hedges III TR, Hoyt WF. Ocular tilt reaction due to an upper brainstem lesion: paroxysmal skew deviation, torsion, and oscillation of the eyes with head tilt. Ann Neurol. 1982;11:537–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hiatt RL, Cope-Troupe C. Abnormal head positions due to ocular problems. Ann Ophthalmol. 1978;10:881–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Ho BC, Lee EH, Singh K. Epidemiology, presentation, and management of congenital muscular torticollis. Singapore Med J. 1999;40:675–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Hoefnagel D, Biery B. Spasmus nutans. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1968;10:32–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Horton CE, Crawford HH, et al. Torticollis. South Med J. 1967;60:953–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Hott SR, Pensak ML. Perilymphatic fistula. ENT J. 1992;71:568–72.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Hottinger-Blanc PM, Ziegler AL, Deonna T. A special type of head stereotypies in children with developmental (?cerebellar) disorder: description of 8 cases and literature review. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2002;6:143–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Hough Jr G de N. Congenital torticollis. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1934;58:972–81.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Hoyt CS, Good WV. Ocular motor adaptations to congenital hemianopia. Binocul Vis Eye Muscle Surg Q. 1993;8:125–6.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Hughes AJ, Lees AJ, Marsden CD. Paroxysmal dystonic head tremor. Mov Disord. 1991;6:85–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hulbert KF. Torticollis. Postgrad Med. 1965;41:699–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Hummer CD, MacEwen GD. The coexistence of torticollis and congenital dysplasia of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg. 1972;54A:1255–6.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ishihara M, Nonaka M, Oshida N, et al. No-No type bobble-head doll syndrome in an infant with an arachnoid cyst of the posterior fossa: a case report. Pediatr Neurol. 2013;49:474–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Jampolsky A. Management of vertical strabismus. In: Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus, transactions of the New Orleans Academy of Ophthalmology. New York: Raven; 1986. p. 157–64.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Jampolsky A. A new look at the head tilt test. In: Fuchs AF, Brandt TH, Büttner U, et al., editors. Contemporary ocular motor and vestibular research: a tribute to David A Robinson. Stuttgart: Springer; 1994. p. 432–9.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Jan JE. Head movements of visually impaired children. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1991;3:645–7.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Jan JE, Groenveld M, Connolly MB. Head shaking by visually impaired children: a voluntary neurovisual adaptation which can be confused with spasmus nutans. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1990;32:1061–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Javal E. Des anomalies de l’accomodation etpractique des maladies de yeux. Paris: Delahaye; 1866. p. 815.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Jensen HP, Pendle G, Goerke W. Head bobbing in a patient with a cyst of the third ventricle. Childs Brain. 1978;4:235–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Jiang Y, Matsuo T, Fujiwara H, et al. ARIX gene polymorphisms in patients with congenital superior oblique muscle palsy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:263–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Jones PG. Torticollis in infancy – sternomastoid fibrosis and the sternomastoid tumor. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas; 1968. p. 3.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Kalyanaraman K, Jagannathan K, Ramanujam RA, et al. Congenital head nodding and nystagmus with cerebrocerebellar degeneration. J Pediatr. 1973;83:1023–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kaufman R. Comanagement and collaborative care of a 20-year-old female with acute viral torticollis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009;32:160–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Kennedy R. Abnormal head posture in patients with Duane syndrome. Am Orthopt J. 1995;45:44–9.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Khan AO. Control of intermittent esotropia by head shaking. J AAPOS. 2007;11:206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Kinsbourne M. Myoclonic encephalopathy of infants. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1962;25:271–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Kiwak KJ. Establishing an etiology for torticollis. Postgrad Med. 1984;75:126–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Kiwak KJ, Deray MJ, Shields WD. Torticollis in three children with syringomyelia and spinal cord tumor. Neurology. 1983;33:946–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Knight ME, Roberts RJ. Phenothiazine and butyrophenone intoxication in children. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1986;33:299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Kohut RI. Perilymph fistula: clinical criteria. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1992;118:687–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Kraft SP, O’Donaghue EP, Roarty JD. Improvement of compensatory head postures after strabismus surgery. Ophthalmology. 1992;99:1301–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kral H, Michaelis U, Pieper HG, et al. Stimulation of bone growth through sports: a radiologic investigation of the upper extremities in professional tennis players. Am J Sports Med. 1994;22:751–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Krefman RA, Goldberg MF. Ocular torticollis caused by refractive error. Arch Ophthalmol. 1982;100:1278–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Kushner BJ. Ocular causes of abnormal head postures. Ophthalmology. 1979;86:2115–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Kushner BJ. Ocular torsion: rotations around the “why” axis. J AAPOS. 2004;8:1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Kwaham E, el Baba F, Kaba F. Abnormal head positions due to ocular problems. Ann Ophthalmol. 1987;19:466–72.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Kyllerman M, Steen G. Intermittently progressive dyskinetic syndrome in glutaric aciduria. Neuropediatrics. 1977;8:397–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Lambert SR, Newman NJ. Retinal disease masquerading as spasmus nutans. Neurology. 1993;43:1607–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Lang J. Squint dating from birth or with early onset. In: Transactions of the first international congress of orthoptists. London: Henry Klimpton; 1968, pp. 231–7.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Leigh JR, Zee DS, editors. The neurology of eye movements. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis; 1991, pp. 246–49, 277.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lidge RT, Bechtol RC, Lambert CN. Congenital muscular torticollis. Etiology and pathology. J Bone Joint Surg. 1957;39A:1165–82.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Ling CM. The influence of age on the results of open sternomastoid tenotomy in muscular torticollis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1976;116:142–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Lueder GT, Arther B, Garibaldi D, et al. Head-tilt dependent esotropia associated with trisomy 21. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:596–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    MacDonald D. Sternocleidomastoid tumor and muscular torticollis. J Bone Joint Surg (Br). 1969;51B:442–3.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Mantuano E, Romano S, Veneziano L, et al. Identification of novel and recurrent CACNA1A gene mutations in fifteen patients with episodic ataxia type 2. J Neurol Sci. 2010;291:30–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Marmor MA, Beauchamp GR, Maddox SF. Photophobia, epiphora, and torticollis: a masquerade syndrome. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1990;27:202–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    McIntosh D, Brown J, Hanson R, Isaacs D. Torticollis and bacterial meningitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1993;12:160–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    McKnight P, Friedman J. Torticollis due to cervical epidural abscess and osteomyelitis. Neurology. 1992;42:696–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    McLaghlan RS. The significance of head and eye turning in seizures. Neurology. 1987;37:1617–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Mein J, Harcourt B. Diagnosis and management of ocular motility disorders. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific; 1986.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Metz HS, Jampolsky A, O’Meara DM. Congenital ocular nystagmus and nystagmoid head movements. Am J Ophthalmol. 1974;74:1131–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Miller NR, editor. Walsh and Hoyt’s clinical neuro-ophthalmology, vol. 2. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1985. p. 893–7.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Minshaw NJ, Williams DL. The new neurobiology of autism. Cortex, connectivity, and neuronal organization. Arch Neurol. 2007;64:945–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Mocan MC, Wright KW, Salvador MG. Evidence of binocular fusion in a 3-week-old infant with transient abducens nerve paresis. J AAPOS. 2007;11:199–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Morad Y, Nemet P. Abnormal head posture in a monocularly viewing patient. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabis. 1999;36:296–300.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Morimoto K, Abekura M, Nil Y, et al. Nodding attacks (infantile spasms) associated with temporal lobe astrocytoma – case report. Neurol Med Chir. 1989;29:610–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Wyllie E, Luders H, Morris HH, et al. The lateralizing significance of versive head and eye movements during epileptic seizures. Neurology. 1986;36:606–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Mount LA, Reback S. Familial paroxysmal choreoathetosis. Arch Neurol Psychiatr (Chicago). 1940;44:841–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Mukherjee S, Sharief N. Bacterial meningitis presenting as acute torticollis. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93:1005–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Murayama K, Greenwood RS, Rao KW, et al. Neurological aspects of del (1q) syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 1991;40:488–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Nelhaus G. Abnormal head movements of young children. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1983;25:384–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Newman SA. Spasmus nutans. Or is it? Surv Ophthalmol. 1990;34:453–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Norn MS. Congenital idiopathic nystagmus. Incidence and occupational prognosis. Ophthalmology. 1964;42:889.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Nucci P, de Pellegrin M, Brancato R. Atlanto-axial dislocation related to instilling eyedrops in a patient with Down’s syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996;122:908–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Nucci P, Hertle RW. Anomalous head posturing in infantile esotropia: a hypothesis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2012;22:297–300.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Nucci P, Kushner BJ, Serafina M, et al. A multi-disciplinary study of the ocular, orthopedic, and neurologic causes of abnormal head postures in children. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:65–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Nucci P, Rosenbaum A. Acquired anomalous head posture following loss of vision in one eye. Acta Ophthalmol. 2002;80:109–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Nutt AB. Abnormal head posture. Br Orthopt J. 1963;20:18–28.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Ochs R, Gloor P, Quesney F, et al. Does head-turning during a seizure have lateralizing or localizing significance? Neurology. 1984;34:884–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    O’Donnell JJ, Howard RO. Torticollis associated with hiatus hernia (Sandifer’s syndrome). Am J Ophthalmol. 1971;71:1134–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Ortiz GL, Pratts I, Ramos E. Grisel’s syndrome: an unusual cause of torticollis. J Pediatr Rehabil Med. 2013;6:175–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Osterberg G. On spasmus nutans. Acta Ophthalmol. 1937;15:457–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Parker W. Migraine and the vestibular system in childhood and adolescence. Am J Otol. 1989;10:364–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Parks MM. Isolated cyclovertical muscle palsy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1958;60:1027–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Parulekar MV, Dai S, Buncic JR, et al. Head position-dependent changes in ocular torsion and vertical misalignment in skew deviation. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:899–905.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Paysse EA, Coats DK. Anomalous head posture with early-onset homonymous hemianopia. J AAPOS. 1997;1:209–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Paysse EA, Coats DK, Plager DA. Facial asymmetry and tendon laxity in superior oblique palsy. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1995;32:158–61.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Per H, Canpolat M, Tümtürk A, et al. Different etiologies of acquired torticollis in childhood. Childs Nerv Syst. 2014;30:431–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Plager DA. Tendon laxity in superior oblique palsy. Ophthalmology. 1992;99:1032–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Plagiocephaly and torticollis in young infants. Lancet. 1986;2:789–90. [Editorial].Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Prensky AL. An approach to the child with paroxysmal phenomenon with emphasis on nonepileptic disorders. In: Dodson WE, Pellock JM, editors. Pediatric epilepsy: diagnosis and therapy. New York: Demos; 1993. p. 63–80.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Ragge NK, Harris CM, Dillon MJ, et al. Ocular tilt reaction due to a mesencephalic lesion in juvenile polyarteritis nodosa. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135:249–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Rajput AH, Rozdilsky B, Ang L, et al. Clinicopathologic observations in essential tremor: report of six cases. Neurology. 1991;41:1422–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Richards RN, Barnett HJ. Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis. Neurology. 1968;18:461–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Rivest J, Marsden CD. Trunk and head tremor as isolated manifestations of dystonia. Mov Disord. 1990;5:60–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Romano P. Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 1997;12:85. Editorial.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Rose KM, Havertape SA, Cruz OA. Development of spasmus nutans after initial diagnosis of infantile esotropia. Am Orthopt J. 1999;49:193–5.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Rosman NP, Douglass LM, Sharif UM, Paolini J. The neurology of benign paroxysmal torticollis of infancy: report of 10 new cases and review of the literature. J Child Neurol. 2009;24:155–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Roubertie A, Echenne B, Leydet J, et al. Benign paroxysmal tonic upgaze, benign paroxysmal torticollis, episodic ataxia and CACNA1A mutation in a family. J Neurol. 2008;255:1600–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Roubertie A, Rivier F, Tuffery-Giraud S, et al. Movement disorders in childhood: classification and genetic update [article in French]. Arch Pediatr. 2003;10:994–1002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Rubin SE, Slavin ML. Head nodding associated with intermittent esotropia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1990;27:250–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Rubin SE, Wagner RS. Ocular torticollis. Surv Ophthalmol. 1986;30:366–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Sa DS, Mailis-Gagnon A, Nicholson K, Lang AE. Posttraumatic painful torticollis. Mov Disord. 2003;18:1482–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Safran AB, Rossilion B. Why should Bielschowsky head tilt test be negative in patients with skew deviation? Mechanism and significance, Trans 25th Eur Strabis Assoc Mtg. Lisse: Aeolus; 1999.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Salem OH, Preston CB. Head posture and deprivation of visual stimuli. Am Orthopt J. 2002;52:95–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Sanner G, Bergstrom B. Benign paroxysmal torticollis in infancy. Acta Paediatr Scan. 1979;68:219–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Santiago AP, Rosenbaum AL. Dissociated vertical deviation and head tilts. J AAPOS. 1998;2:5–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Sarnet HB, Morrissy RT. Idiopathic torticollis: sternocleidomastoid myopathy and accessory neuropathy. Muscle Nerve. 1981;4:374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Saunders RA, Roberts EL. Abnormal head posture in patients with fourth cranial nerve palsy. Am Orthopt J. 1995;45:24–33.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Scheffer RN, Zlotogora J, Elpeleg ON, et al. Behr’s syndrome and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Am J Ophthalmol. 1992;114:494–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Sedwick LA, Burde RM, Hodges FJ. Leigh’s subacute necrotizing encephalomyelitis manifesting as spasmus nutans. Ophthalmology. 1990;102:1046–8.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Shim JS, Jang HP. Operative treatment of congenital torticollis. J Bone Joing Surg (Br). 2008;90:934–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Siatkowski RM, Fortney AC, Nazir SA. Visual field defects in deformational posterior plagiocephaly. J AAPOS. 2005;9:274–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Siatkowski RM, Sanke RF, Farris BK. Binocular vertical rectus muscle recession for comitant vertical strabismus. J Neuroophthalmol. 2013;23:136–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Simonsz HJ, Florijn R, van Minderhout HM, Bergen AAB, Kamermans M. Nightblindness-associated transient tonic downgaze (NATTD) in infant boys with chin-up head posture. Strabismus. 2009;17:158–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Snyder CH. Paroxysmal torticollis of infancy. A possible form of labyrinthitis. Am J Dis Child. 1969;117:458–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Spielmann A. Pediatric nystagmus and strabismus. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 1990;1:621–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Stevens DJ, Hertel RW. Relationships between visual acuity and anomalous head posture in patients with congenital nystagmus. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2003;40:259–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Still GF. Head nodding with nystagmus in infants. Lancet. 1906;2:207–9.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Stone J. Syphilis and the cardiovascular system. In: Schlant RC, Alexander RW, editors. The heart. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1994. p. 1949–52.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Stuart JA, Burian HM. Changes in horizontal heterophoria with elevation and depression of gaze. Am J Ophthalmol. 1962;53:274–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Suchowersky O, Calne DB. Non-dystonic causes of torticollis. Adv Neurol. 1988;50:501–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Suhr MC, Oledzka M. Considerations and interventions in congenital muscular torticollis. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2015;27:75–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Taboas-Perez RA, Rivera-Reyes L. Head tilt: a revisit to an old sign of posterior fossa tumors. Bol Asoc Med P R. 1984;76(2):62–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Taylor D. Disorders of head and eye movements in children. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K. 1980;100:489–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Thurston SE, Leigh RJ, Osorio I. Epileptic gaze deviation and nystagmus. Neurology. 1985;35:1518–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Tomasovic JA, Nellhaus G, Moe PG, et al. The bobble-headed doll syndrome: an early sign of hydrocephalus. Two new cases and a review of the literature. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1975;17:777–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Tomczak KK, Rosman NP. Torticollis. J Child Neurol. 2013;28:365–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Urist MJ. Head tilt in vertical muscle paresis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1970;69:440–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Vanasse M, Bedard P, Andermann F. Shuddering attacks in children: an early clinical manifestation of essential tremor. Neurology. 1976;26:1027–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    van Breemen MS, van der Kuip M, Ang CW, et al. Torticollis and seizures due to neuroborreliosis in a child [article in Dutch]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2012;156(51):A5157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    von Holst E. Die Gleichgewichtssinne der Fische. Verh Dtsch Zool Ges. 1935;15:143–8.Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    von Noorden GK. Binocular vision and ocular motility. 4th ed. St. Louis: C.V. Mosby; 1990. p. 372–8.Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    von Noorden GK. Clinical observations in cyclodeviations. Ophthalmology. 1979;86:1451–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    von Noorden GK, Jenkins RH, Rosenbaum AL. Horizontal transposition of the vertical rectus muscles for treatment of ocular torticollis. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1993;30:8–14.Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    von Noorden GK, Ruttam M. Torticollis in paralysis of the trochlear nerve. Am Orthopt J. 1983;33:16–20.Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Walsh FB, Hoyt WF. Clinical neuro-ophthalmology. 3rd ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1969. p. 151.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Werlin SL, D’Souza BJ, Hogan WJ, et al. Sandifer syndrome: an unappreciated clinical entity. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1980;22:374–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Wesson ME. The ocular significance of abnormal head postures. Br Orthopt J. 1964;121:14–28.Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    Wicart P. Congenital torticollis [article in French]. Arch Pediatr. 2012;19:335–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Wilson ME, Hoxie J. Facial asymmetry in superior oblique muscle palsy. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1993;30:315–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Wong A, Sharpe JA. Adaptations and deficits in the vestibulo-ocular reflex after third nerve palsy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120:360–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Wyllie E, Luders H, Morris HH, et al. Ipsilateral forced head and eye turning at the end of the generalized tonic-clonic phase of versive seizures. Neurology. 1986;36:1212–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael C. Brodsky
    • 1
  1. 1.Mayo ClinicRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations