Skip to main content

Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Primary Motor Cortex on Cerebral Blood Flow: A Time Course Study Using Near-infrared Spectroscopy

  • Conference paper
Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXXVII

Abstract

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that is applied during stroke rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to examine diachronic intracranial hemodynamic changes using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during tDCS applied to the primary motor cortex (M1). Seven healthy volunteers were tested during real stimulation (anodal and cathodal) and during sham stimulation. Stimulation lasted 20 min and NIRS data were collected for about 23 min including the baseline. NIRS probe holders were positioned over the entire contralateral sensory motor area. Compared to the sham condition, both anodal and cathodal stimulation resulted in significantly lower oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) concentrations in the contralateral premotor cortex (PMC), supplementary motor area (SMA), and M1 (p < 0.01). Particularly in the SMA, the O2Hb concentration during anodal stimulation was significantly lower than that during the sham condition (p < 0.01), while the O2Hb concentration during cathodal stimulation was lower than that during anodal stimulation (p < 0.01). In addition, in the primary sensory cortex, the O2Hb concentration during anodal stimulation was significantly higher than the concentrations during both cathodal stimulation and the sham condition (p < 0.05). The factor of time did not demonstrate significant differences. These results suggest that both anodal and cathodal tDCS cause widespread changes in cerebral blood flow, not only in the area immediately under the electrode, but also in other areas of the cortex.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 189.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Nitsche MA, Paulus W (2000) Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation. J Physiol 527(3):633–639

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. Merzagora AC, Foffani G, Panyavin I et al (2010) Prefrontal hemodynamic changes produced by anodal direct current stimulation. Neuroimage 49(3):2304–2310

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Jang SH, Ahn SH, Byun WM et al (2009) The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on the cortical activation by motor task in the human brain: an fMRI study. Neurosci Lett 460(2):117–120

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Kwon YH, Ko MH, Ahn SH et al (2008) Primary motor cortex activation by transcranial direct current stimulation in the human brain. Neurosci Lett 435(1):56–59

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Franceschini MA, Joseph DK, Huppert TJ et al (2006) Diffuse optical imaging of the whole head. J Biomed Opt 11(5):054007

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Kohno S, Miyai I, Seiyama A et al (2007) Removal of the skin blood flow artifact in functional near-infrared spectroscopic imaging data through independent component analysis. J Biomed Opt 12(6):062111

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Polanía R, Paulus W, Antal A, Nitsche MA (2011) Introducing graph theory to track for neuroplastic alterations in the resting human brain: a transcranial direct current stimulation study. Neuroimage 54(3):2287–2296

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Bikson M, Inoue M, Akiyama H et al (2004) Effects of uniform extracellular DC electric fields on excitability in rat hippocampal slices in vitro. J Physiol 557(Pt 1):175–190

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. Ruohonen J, Karhu J (2012) tDCS possibly stimulates glial cells. Clin Neurophysiol 123(10):2006–2009

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Nitsche MA, Liebetanz O, Lang N et al (2003) Safety criteria for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in humans. Clin Neurophysiol 114(11):2220–2222

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Nitsche MA, Niehaus L, Hoffmann KT et al (2004) MRI study of human brain exposed to weak direct current stimulation of the frontal cortex. Clin Neurophysiol 115:2419–2423

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research 24650335 from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Haruna Takai .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer Science+Business Media, New York

About this paper

Cite this paper

Takai, H. et al. (2016). Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Primary Motor Cortex on Cerebral Blood Flow: A Time Course Study Using Near-infrared Spectroscopy. In: Elwell, C.E., Leung, T.S., Harrison, D.K. (eds) Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXXVII. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 876. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-3023-4_42

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics