Review of Offshore Wind Farm Impact Monitoring and Mitigation with Regard to Marine Mammals

  • Ursula K. VerfussEmail author
  • Carol E. Sparling
  • Charlie Arnot
  • Adrian Judd
  • Michael Coyle
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 875)


Monitoring and mitigation reports from 19 UK and 9 other European Union (EU) offshore wind farm (OWF) developments were reviewed, providing a synthesis of the evidence associated with the observed environmental impact on marine mammals. UK licensing conditions were largely concerned with mitigation measures reducing the risk of physical and auditory injury from pile driving. At the other EU sites, impact monitoring was conducted along with mitigation measures. Noise-mitigation measures were developed and tested in UK and German waters in German government-financed projects. We highlight some of the review’s findings and lessons learned with regard to noise impact on marine mammals.


Offshore wind farm Impact monitoring Mitigation Marine mammals Licensing procedure 



We are grateful to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and the Marine Management Organisation for funding this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ursula K. Verfuss
    • 1
    Email author
  • Carol E. Sparling
    • 1
  • Charlie Arnot
    • 2
  • Adrian Judd
    • 3
  • Michael Coyle
    • 4
  1. 1.Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU) Marine Ltd.New Technology Centre, North HaughSt. Andrews, FifeUK
  2. 2.Fugro EMU Ltd.Durley, SouthamptonUK
  3. 3.Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)Lowestoft, SuffolkUK
  4. 4.Marine Management OrganisationNewcastle upon TyneUK

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