Challenge of Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring in High-Energy Environments: UK Tidal Environments and Other Case Studies
The use of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) around marine developments is commonplace. A buffer-based PAM system (e.g., C-POD) is a cost-effective method for assessing cetacean acoustic presence. Devices have been deployed by Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU) Marine around the United Kingdom, allowing an examination of the performance of C-PODs with respect to background noise, tilt angle, and environmental factors. C-PODs were found to often only monitor for a few seconds of each minute, resulting in significant loss of monitoring time. Issues were likely driven by environmental and deployment factors. The practical limitations of buffer-based PAM systems in high-energy/noisy environments are indicated here.
KeywordsImpact monitoring Noisy environments Marine mammals Limitations Passive acoustic monitoring
Many thanks to those who contributed reviewer comments in the preparation of this manuscript and those who made data available.
- Chelonia (2013) C-POD.exe: a guide for users. Available at http://www.chelonia.co.uk/downloads/CPOD.pdf. Accessed 1 Aug 2013
- Panigada S, Zanardelli M, MacKenzie M, Donovan C, Melin F, Hammond PS (2008) Modelling habitat preferences for fin whales and striped dolphins in the Pelagos Sanctuary (Western Mediterranean Sea) with physiographic and remote sensing variables. Remote Sens Environ 112:3400–3412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- R Core Development Team (2006) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. Available at www.R-project.org
- Verboom WC, Kastelein RA (1997) Structure of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) click train signals. In: Read AJ, Wiepkema PR, Nachtigall PE (eds) The biology of the harbour porpoise. De Spil Publishers, Woerden, pp 343–363Google Scholar