Challenge of Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring in High-Energy Environments: UK Tidal Environments and Other Case Studies

  • Cormac G. Booth
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 875)


The use of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) around marine developments is commonplace. A buffer-based PAM system (e.g., C-POD) is a cost-effective method for assessing cetacean acoustic presence. Devices have been deployed by Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU) Marine around the United Kingdom, allowing an examination of the performance of C-PODs with respect to background noise, tilt angle, and environmental factors. C-PODs were found to often only monitor for a few seconds of each minute, resulting in significant loss of monitoring time. Issues were likely driven by environmental and deployment factors. The practical limitations of buffer-based PAM systems in high-energy/noisy environments are indicated here.


Impact monitoring Noisy environments Marine mammals Limitations Passive acoustic monitoring 



Many thanks to those who contributed reviewer comments in the preparation of this manuscript and those who made data available.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU) Marine Ltd., New Technology CentreSt. Andrews, FifeUK

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