Are the 1/3-Octave Band 63- and 125-Hz Noise Levels Predictive of Vessel Activity? The Case in the Cres–Lošinj Archipelago (Northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia)
A 3-years sea ambient-noise (SAN) monitoring was carried out in the Cres–Lošinj Archipelago (Croatia), where a bottlenose dolphin population is threatened by unregulated nautical tourism. A total of 540 5-min SAN samples were collected and analyzed in an Indicator 11.2.1 (Marine Strategy Framework Directive) perspective. The 1/3-octave band center frequencies of 63 and 125 Hz (re 1 μPa.rms) proved to be predictive of local predominant ship type over time. However, the noisiest band level was centered on 200 Hz. We therefore suggest measuring a wider frequency band than those requested in Indicator 11.2.1.
KeywordsNoise Boat Dolphins
We are grateful to Marta Bolgan for valuable comments on the present manuscript.
- Arko-Pijevac M, Benac Ĉ, Kovaĉić M, Kirinĉić M, Grţanĉić T (2003) Ecological and geological valorisation of the coastal line and submarine area of the islands Ćutin mail and Ćutin veli aiming to establish a protected area. In: Besendorfer V (ed) Zbornik saţetaka priopćenja Osmog hrvatskog biološkog kongresa. Hrvatsko biološko društvo, Zagreb, pp 407–408Google Scholar
- European Commission (2008) Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 June 2008, establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive). Source L164:19–40Google Scholar
- Favro S, Saganić I (2007) Natural characteristics of Croatian littoral area as a comparative advantage for nautical tourism development. Geoadria 12:59–81Google Scholar
- Fortuna CM (2006) Ecology and conservation of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, in the north-eastern Adriatic Sea. Ph.D. thesis, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, FifeGoogle Scholar
- Mikačić V (1994) Otočni turizam Hrvatske/Island tourism in Croatian. Društvena istraživanja 3:517–529Piercy JJB, Codling EA, Hill A, Smith DJ, Simpson SD (2014) Habitat quality affects sound production and likely distance of detection on coral reefs. Marine Ecol Prog Ser 516:35–47Google Scholar
- Rako N, Fortuna CM, Holcer D, Mackelworth P, Nimak-Wood M, Pleslić G, Sebastianutto L, Vilibić I, Wiemann A, Picciulin M (2013) Leisure boating noise as a trigger for the displacement of the bottlenose dolphins of the Cres-Lošinj archipelago (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia). Mar Pollut Bull 68:77–84CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Richardson WJ, Green CR Jr, Malme CI, Thompson DH (1995) Marine mammals and noise. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
- van der Graaf AJ, Ainslie MA, André M, Brensing K, Dalen J, Dekeling RPA, Robinson S, Tasker ML, Thomsen F, Werner S (2012) European Marine Strategy Framework Directive Good Environmental Status (MSFD-GES). Report of the Technical Subgroup on Underwater Noise and other forms of energy, 27 Feb 2012Google Scholar