Cardiac Pacemakers and Implantable Cardiovascular-Defibrillators
For 50 years, cardiac pacing has been the treatment for bradyarrhythmias for both adults and children. While this continues to be the main reason for permanent cardiac pacing, implantable devices to manage tachyarrhythmias have increased over the past decade. In addition, the use of resynchronization (biventricular) pacing has found a role to treat dyssynchronous cardiac function and congestive heart failure for all ages. This chapter reviews the current indications for cardiac pacing, particularly in reference to the treatment of tachyarrhythmias, current pacemaker technology, the variety of available devices and electrodes, implantation techniques, and chronic device and electrode testing and follow-up, particularly with relevance to optimal long-term management of the child who requires device implantation.
KeywordsBipolar electrodes Bipolar leads Bradyarrhythmias Cardiac resynchronization devices Device follow-up Dual-chamber pacemakers Endocardial leads Epicardial leads Heart failure Implantable cardio-defibrillators Pacemaker testing Single-chamber pacemakers Tachyarrhythmias Unipolar electrodes
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