Carbohydrates and Proteins as Nonequilibrium Components of Biological Materials

Part of the Food Engineering Series book series (FSES)


Carbohydrates and proteins form the main hydrophilic phases in biological materials. Water solubility and formation of glass-like structures at high solids contents are well-known properties of carbohydrates, particularly of low molecular weight sugars (White and Cakebread 1966). Natural biological materials, including foods, often contain carbohydrates mixed with proteins and other hydrophilic substances in their aqueous phase.


Nonequilibrium components Biological materials Carbohydrates and proteins 



Water activity


Universal coefficient


Universal coefficient




Crystallization time


Glass transition temperature


Williams-Landel-Ferry relationship


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food Technology, School of Food and Nutritional SciencesUniversity College CorkCorkIreland

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