Maillard Reaction in Limited Moisture and Low Water Activity Environment

  • C. W. Wong
  • H. B. Wijayanti
  • B. R. BhandariEmail author
Part of the Food Engineering Series book series (FSES)


Maillard reaction is a nonenzymatic browning reaction that involves the reaction of carbonyl groups, primarily reducing sugars with free amino groups which cause the changes of chemical and physiological properties of proteins (Labuza and Saltmarch 1981). It results in the development of complex mixtures of colored and colorless reaction products which range from flavor volatiles (low molecular weight compounds) to melanoidins, a series of brown pigments with high molecular weights (Carabasa-Giribet and Ibarz-Ribas 2000; Martins and Van-Boekel 2005); these effects could be either desirable or undesirable. Browning and the formation of aroma are desired in baking, roasting, or frying, while it is undesirable in the foods which have a typical weak or other color of their own such as browning in the products of condensed milk, white dried soups, tomato soup, etc. and generation of off-flavors in food during storage. Besides, Maillard reaction can also have negative effects on nutritional values such as the losses of essential amino acids, as well as the formation of mutagenic compounds (Belitz et al. 2004).


Maillard reaction Limited moisture Water activity 



Water activity


Intermediate moisture food


Color difference


Reaction rate constants


Coefficients of determination


Values of index (color)




Relation between the zero-order kinetic constant for the color formation


Zero-order kinetic constant for the color formation


First-order kinetic constant for the color disappearance


Induction time


Analysis of variance


Maillard reaction products


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. W. Wong
    • 1
  • H. B. Wijayanti
    • 1
  • B. R. Bhandari
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Agriculture and Food SciencesThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

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