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Moisture Sorption Isotherms of Foods: Experimental Methodology, Mathematical Analysis, and Practical Applications

  • C. Caballero-Cerón
  • J. A. Guerrero-Beltrán
  • H. Mújica-Paz
  • J. A. Torres
  • J. Welti-Chanes
Part of the Food Engineering Series book series (FSES)

Abstract

Knowing the moisture content of a product is insufficient to predict its stability, making it necessary to also know its water activity (aw), a thermodynamic property describing the interactions between water molecules and the food matrix. Moisture sorption isotherms, i.e., the relationship between moisture content and aw at constant pressure and temperature describing the sorption process of water molecules into a specific material, are useful when identifying optimal food dehydration and storage conditions. Moisture sorption properties affect physicochemical and biological phenomena such as enzymatic degradation, microbial activity, food microstructure, sensory quality deterioration, nutrient losses, and other changes limiting the shelf life of food products. Some of these phenomena are associated with water mobility, which is also related with the phase transitions from a “glass” or amorphous to a “rubbery” state. Glass transition is a second order phase transition associated with time, temperature, and moisture content. When fresh foods are dried, water removal leaves behind an amorphous material. A desirable final product moisture level is one that corresponds to a glass transition temperature (Tg) higher than the product storage temperature. Therefore, knowing Tg helps in setting the food storage and/or process conditions required to retain textural properties and to predict the shelf life of low and intermediate moisture content foods.

Keywords

Moisture sorption isotherms Mathematical analysis Experimental methodology 

Abbreviations

ΔG

Gibb’s free energy value

ΔH

Enthalpy

ΔS

Entropy

A

Constant of Halsey equation

ASE

Average standard error

aw

Water activity

aw,calc.

Water activity values estimated with the model

aw,exp

Experimental water activity values

B

Constant of Halsey equation

BET

Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation

C

Adsorbent constant, interaction energy constant

DDI

Dynamic dew point isotherm method

Ds

Dried solids

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

DVS

Dynamic vapor sorption method

F, G, and H

Constants of Lewicki equation

GAB

Guggenheim, Anderson, and De Boer equation

H1

Condensation heat of pure water (J mol-1)

Hm

Total sorption heat of the monolayer (J mol-1)

Hq

Total sorption heat of subsequent water layers (J mol-1)

K

Interaction energy constant

k and n

Constants of Henderson equation

M

Linearized portion slope of the sorption isotherm in the range of interest

MRD

Measurements of deviation between predicted data

Q

Isosteric heat of sorption

Q/R

Slope in the lineal relationship of ln aw against the inverse absolute temperature

qst

Isosteric heat of sorption

R

Ideal gas constant

R

Ideal gas constant

R2

Coefficient of determination

RH

Relative humidity

RMSE

Measurements of deviation between experimental data

T

Absolute temperature

TB

Isokinetic temperature

Tg

Glass transition temperature

Thm

Harmonic temperature

X

Moisture content

Xi

Average moisture content values

Xi, calc.

Calculated moisture content values

Xi, exp

Experimental moisture content values

Xm

Monolayer moisture values

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors acknowledge the financial support from Tecnológico de Monterrey (Research Chair Funds CAT-00200 and Nutrigenómica), and author Claudia Caballero-Cerón thanks for the financial support for her graduate studies to CONACYT and Tecnológico de Monterrey.

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro de Biotecnología FEMSA, Escuela de Biotecnología y AlimentosTecnológico de MonterreyMonterreyMexico
  2. 2.Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Alimentos y AmbientalUniversidad de las Américas-PueblaCholulaMexico
  3. 3.Escuela de Ingeniería y CienciasTecnológico de MonterreyMonterreyMéxico
  4. 4.Food Process Engineering Group, Department of Food Science and TechnologyOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

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