Interstitial Lung Diseases in Small Lung Biopsies

  • Mostafa M. FraigEmail author


Chronic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is a group of chronic pneumonias with unknown etiology. They share in common the insidious onset with progressively deteriorating course clinically. They have certain association with some other diseases such collagen vascular disease (CVD) or with some activity like cigarette smoking, but there is no clear-cut cause and effect relationship. On imaging studies they share the presence of ground-glass opacities and variable degree of interstitial fibrosis. The pulmonary function tests (PFTs) show restrictive changes.

For the longest time, surgical biopsy was the mainstay for diagnosing interstitial lung diseases. There was much overlap between the histomophologic features among these diseases, and the therapeutic as well as the prognostic implications were serious enough to make reaching a definitive diagnosis of paramount importance.

Recently, as imaging criteria and clinical correlates improved, about half of patients being diagnosed with usual interstitial pneumonia do not need a lung biopsy at all. For the other half, there is an emerging trend for using transbronchial (Berbescu et al., Chest 129:1126–31, 2006; Tomassetti et al., Respir Res 13:96, 2012) cryobiopsy (Casoni et al., PLoS One 9:e86716, 2014) for that purpose.


Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) Respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) Desquamative interstitial pneumonia Hypersensitivity pneumonia 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology and Laboratory MedicineSchool of Medicine, University of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA

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