Impact of Hyperthyroidism on the Cardiovascular and Musculoskeletal Systems and Management of Patients with Subclinical Graves’ Disease

  • Bernadette Biondi


An increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality have been linked with overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism. These findings might be the consequence of the increased risk of atrial fibrillation, embolic events, heart failure, and coronary disease observed in the presence of thyroid hormone excess. A specific autoimmune cardiovascular involvement has been reported in patients with Graves’ disease. Pulmonary hypertension, cardiac valve disease, and dilated cardiomyopathy represent important risk factors, which may play an important role in determining the poor cardiovascular outcome reported in autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The correction of overt and subclinical hyperthyroidism should be the first step in improving the prognosis of hyperthyroid patients with cardiovascular complications.


Graves’ disease Toxic nodular goiter Heart failure Atrial fibrillation Coronary heart disease Pulmonary hypertension Cardiac valve disease Dilated cardiomyopathy Peripartum cardiomyopathy Cardiovascular mortality 


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Medicine and SurgeryUniversity of Naples Federico IINaplesItaly

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