Advertisement

Islam, Property and Philanthropy: Ethical and Philosophical Foundations and Cultural Influences

  • Samiul Hasan
Part of the Nonprofit and Civil Society Studies book series (NCSS)

Abstract

This chapter is to comprehend and highlight essential aspects of philanthropy in Islam that are likely to benefit human security emphasising the ethical principles of property and human relationships. To contextualise the discussion, the chapter deals with the concepts of ethics and property in Islam. The first section (‘Islamic ethical principles influencing human relationships or muamalat’) deals with the principles of ‘public benefit’ (maslahah). The second section (property and economic relationships in Islam) in three sections deals with ‘private property and public interests in Islam’, ‘principles and conditions of profit making in Islam’, and ‘property, gift and inheritance’. The following section (‘philanthropy in Islam’) deals with the fundamental, and essential features, of obligatory charity as codified in Islam. The chapter argues that Islam promotes purposive strategic philanthropy that may ensure human security even in the modern world. It concludes that the principles and instruments of human security as propounded in Islam have varied interpretations and manifestations resulting from flexibility in Islamic jurisprudence, thus Muslim philanthropy and human security in MMCs are influenced by local ‘cultural phenomenon’ and destined to be different across MMCs.

Keywords

Philanthropy Human relationships Property Public benefit Islamic jurisprudence 

References

  1. Abdalla, M. (2012). Sacred law in a secular land: To what extent should Shar’ia law be followed in Australia? Griffith Law Review, 21(3), 659–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdelhady, H. (2012). Islamic finance as a mechanism for bolstering food security in the middle east: Food security waqf. Sustainable Development Law and Policy, 13(1), 29–35. 63–65, available: http://ssrn-id2273965.pdf.Google Scholar
  3. Abdul-Rauf, M. (1979). The Muslim doctrine of economics and contemporary economic thought. In Highlights of a conference on theological inquiry into capitalism and socialism. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.Google Scholar
  4. Aktay, Y., & Topcuoglu, A. (2007). Civil society and its cultural origins in a Turkish City: Konya. Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies, 16(3), 273–287.Google Scholar
  5. AL Qardawi, Y. (2000). Fiqh Al Zakah (Volume I): A comparative study of Zakah, regulations and philosophy in the light of Qur’an and Sunnah. Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre.Google Scholar
  6. Al-Qaradawi, Y. (2001). The lawful and the prohibited in islam. Kuala Lumpur: Islamic Book Trust. Translated by Kamal Al Hatawi, et al.Google Scholar
  7. Al-Banna, H. (2007). The new renaissance. In J. J. Donohue & J. L. Esposito (Eds.), Islam in transition: Muslim perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 59–63). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Ali, A. Y. (1938). The holy Qur’an: Text, translation and commentary. Beirut: Dar Al Arabia.Google Scholar
  9. Ali, S. A. (1964). The spirit of Islam: A history of the evolution and ideals of Islam. London: Chatto and Windus.Google Scholar
  10. Ameen, M. R. (2004). Ushr in Islamic economy: A pragmatic analysis in the context of Bangladesh (in Bangla). Islamic Foundation Patrika, 44(2), 68–83.Google Scholar
  11. An-Naim, A. (2002). Islamic family law in a changing world: A global resource book. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  12. Atia, M. (2011). Islamic approaches to development: A case study of Zakat, Sadaqa and Qurd al Hassan in contemporary Egypt. In 8th International conference on Islamic economics and finance. Doha: Centre for Islamic Economics and Finance, Qatar Faculty of Islamic Studies, Qatar Foundation.Google Scholar
  13. Baali, F. (1988). Society, state, and urbanism: Ibn Khaldun’s sociological thought. New York, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  14. Cizakca, M. (1995). Cash Waqfs on Bursa. Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient, 38(3), 313–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Doi, Abd ar-Rahman I. (2008). Shari’ah: Islamic law. London: Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd.Google Scholar
  16. Eickelman, D. F. (2002). Islam and ethical pluralism. In S. H. Hashmi (Ed.), Islamic political ethics: Civil society, pluralism, and conflict (pp. 116–134). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Esposito, J. L. (2003). The Oxford dictionary of Islam. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Fay, M. A. (1998). From concubines to capitalists: Women, property and power in eighteenth-century. Cairo’ Journal of Women’s History, 10(3), 118–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gambling, T., & Karim, R. A. A. (1991). Business and accounting ethics in islam. London: Mansell.Google Scholar
  20. Gambling, T.E. & Karim, R.A.A. (1986). Islam and Social Accounting, Journal of Business Finance and Accounting 13(1):39–50.Google Scholar
  21. Hanafi, H. (2002). Alternative conceptions of civil society: A reflective approach. In S. H. Hashmi (Ed.), Islamic political ethics: Civil society, pluralism, and conflict (pp. 56–75). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Hannan, S.A. (2003). Law, economics, and history. Dhaka: The Printmaster.Google Scholar
  23. Hasan, S. (2006). Muslim philanthropy and social security: Prospects, practices, and pitfalls, ISTR Working Paper (A paper presented at the 6th ISTR Biennial Conference held in Bangkok, July 9–12, 2006). Retrieved from www.istr.org
  24. Hasan, S. (2007). Philanthropy and social justice in Islam: Principles, prospects, and practices. Kuala Lumpur: A.S. Noordeen.Google Scholar
  25. Hasan, S. (2009). Sadaqa’. In H. K. Anheier & S. Toepler (Eds.), International encyclopaedia of civil society. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  26. Hasan, S. (2012). Islamic jurisprudence: Sources and traditions creating diversity in human relationships. In S. Hasan (Ed.), The Muslim world in the 21st century: Space, power, and human development (pp. 23–42). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hitti, P. K. (1970). The Arabs: A short history. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  28. Hoexter, M. (1998). Waqf studies in the twentieth century: The state of the art. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 41(4), 476–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hussain, J. (1999). Islamic law and society: An introduction. Leichhardt, NSW: The Federation Press.Google Scholar
  30. Johnston, D. (2007). Maqasid Al-Shari’a: Epistemology and hermeneutics of Muslim theologies of human rights. Die Welt des Islams, 47(2), 149–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kahf, M. (1999). Towards the revival of awqaf: A few fiqhi issues to reconsider. Presented at the Harvard Forum on Islamic Finance and Economics, 1 October. Retrieved from Monzer.kahf.comGoogle Scholar
  32. Kamali, M. H. (1999). Freedom, equality, and justice in Islam. Kuala Lumpur: Ilmiah Publishers Sdn. Bhd.Google Scholar
  33. Khan, M. W. (2003). Concept of charity in Islam. International Journal of Civil Society Law, 11(3), 93–97.Google Scholar
  34. Kuran, T. (2001). The provision of public goods under Islamic law: Origins, impact, and limitations of the waqf system. Law and Society Review, 35(4), 841–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kuran, T. (2004). Islam and mammon: The economic predicaments of islamism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kuran, T. (2012). The long divergence: How Islamic law held back the middle east. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lewis, B. (1990). State and civil society under islam. New Perspectives Quarterly, 7(2), 38–41.Google Scholar
  38. Marcus, A. (1989). The middle east on the eve of modernity: Aleppo in the eighteenth century. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Mawdudi, A. A. (2007). Political theory of Islam. In J. J. Donohue & J. L. Esposito (Eds.), Islam in transition: Muslim perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 262–270). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. McChesney, R. D. (1995). Charity and philanthropy in Islam: Institutionalizing the call to do good (Essays on philanthropy, Vol. 14). Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University Centre on Philanthropy.Google Scholar
  41. Mehmet, O. (1997). Al Ghazzali on social justice: Guidelines for a new world order from an early medieval scholar. International Journal of Social Economics, 24(11), 1203–1218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mondal, M. S. (2003). Sources and uses of Zakat fund. In S. A. Hannan et al. (Eds.), Zakat and poverty alleviation (pp. 11–36). Dhaka: Islamic Economics Research Bureau.Google Scholar
  43. Naqvi, S. N. H. (2001). The islamic ethical system. In K. Ahmad & A. H. M. Sadeq (Eds.), Ethics in business and management: Islamic and mainstream approaches (pp. 25–40). London: ASEAN Academic Press.Google Scholar
  44. Nomani, F., & Rahnema, A. (1995). Islamic economic systems. Kuala Lumpur: Business Information Press.Google Scholar
  45. Nyang, S. (2002). Religion and the maintenance of boundaries: An Islamic view. In S. H. Hashmi (Ed.), Islamic political ethics: Civil society, pluralism, and conflict (pp. 102–112). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Ozalp, M. (2004). 101 Questions you asked about Islam. Sydney, NSW: Brandl and Schlesinger.Google Scholar
  47. Powell, R. (2010). Zakat: Drawing insights for legal theory and economic policy from Islamic jurisprudence. Pittsburgh Tax Review, 7(1), 43–101.Google Scholar
  48. Pryor, F. L. (2007). The economic impact of Islam on developing countries. World Development, 35(11), 1815–1835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Qutb, S. (1953). Social justice in islam. American Society of Learned Scholars: Washington, DC. Translated by John Hardie.Google Scholar
  50. Rahim, M. A. (2003). Zakat: its nature, objectives, and aims (in Bangla). In IFB (Ed.), Islamay zakat babostha (pp. 9–44). Dhaka: Research Division Islamic, Foundation Bangladesh.Google Scholar
  51. Rahman, F. (1982). Islam and modernity: Transformation of an intellectual tradition. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  52. Raissouni, A. (2001). Islamic ‘Waqf Endowment’: Scope and implications, (A. B. Rabat, Trans.). Islamic educational, scientific, and cultural organisation, ISESCO, www edition. Retrieved from http://www.isesco.org
  53. Saeed, A., & Akbarzadeh, S. (2001). Muslim communities in Australia. Sydney, NSW: UNSW Press.Google Scholar
  54. Sardar, Z. (1991). Editor’s introduction: Islam and the future. Futures, 23, 221–223.Google Scholar
  55. Sauer, J. B. (2002). Metaphysics and economy – The problem of interest, a comparison of the practice and ethics of interest in islamic and christian cultures. International Journal of Social Economics, 29(1/2), 97–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Smith, W. A. (2002). Managing ethnic diversity in a Japanese joint venture in Malaysia. A seminar presentation in the Japan, Canada, and the Pacific Rim: Trade, Investment, and Security Issues, University of British Columbia, Canada, 27–28 MarchGoogle Scholar
  57. Stibbard, P., Russel, D., & Bromley, B. (2012). Understanding the waqf in the world of the trust. Trusts and Trustees, 18(8), 785–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tamadonfar, M. (2001). Islam, law, and political control in contemporary Iran. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40(3), 205–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tripp, C. (2005). Sayyid Qurb: The political vision. In A. Rahnema (Ed.), Pioneers of Islamic revival (pp. 154–183). Kuala Lumpur: SIRD.Google Scholar
  60. Uddin, S. J. (2003). Understanding the framework of business in Islam in an era of globalization: A review. Business Ethics: A European Review, 12(1), 23–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Umaruddin, M. (2003). The ethical philosophy of Al-Ghazzali. Kuala Lumpur: A. S. Noordeen.Google Scholar
  62. Watt, M. (1961). Islam and the integration of society. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Widiyanto, W., Mutamimah, S., & Hendar, H. (2011). Effectiveness of Qard-al-Hasan financing as a poverty alleviation model. Economic Journal of Emerging Market, 3(10), 27–42.Google Scholar
  64. Zaman, M. R. (2002). Islamic perspectives on territorial boundaries and autonomy. In S. H. Hashmi (Ed.), Islamic political ethics: Civil society, pluralism, and conflict (pp. 79–101). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceUnited Arab Emirates UniversityAl AinUAE

Personalised recommendations