International Civil Religious Pilgrimage: Gallipoli and Dialogical Remembrance

  • Brad WestEmail author


This chapter argues that global forces can work to re-enchant national identity by examining a new form of transnational commemoration: international civil religious pilgrimage. This pilgrimage rite involves the act of visiting a site sacred within the history of the traveler’s nation but which is located outside its sovereign territory. The cultural significance of this rite for re-enchanting the nation is explored within a study of Australian travelers touring the WWI Gallipoli battlefields in Turkey. This case points to the role of travel experiences and tourist entrepreneurs in propagating new national histories and identities across traditional frontiers, characterized by what Bakhtin (1984) terms dialogical discourses.


Civil religion Collective memory Cosmopolitanism Dialogical Gallipoli International tourism Memorialization Pilgrimage Turkey War 


  1. ABC News (2013). Turkey threatens to ban MPs from Gallipoli centenary over genocide vote 21 August. Accessed 20 June 2014.
  2. Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.Google Scholar
  3. Bademli, R. (1997). Gallipoli Peninsula peace park international ideas and design competition. Ankara: General Directorate of National Parks and Wild Life of Turkish Ministery of Forestry.Google Scholar
  4. Bakhtin, M.M. (1981). The dialogic imagination: Four essays. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bakhtin, M.M. (1986). Speech genres and other late essays. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  6. Barber, B. (1972). Place, symbol and the utilitarian function in war memorials. In R. Gutman (Ed.), People and buildings (pp. 327–334). New York: Basic.Google Scholar
  7. Basarin, J. (2012). “Anzac Da at Gallipoli 2015: balloting-There is a Better Solution” Deakin Speaking, 12 December. Accessed 20 June 2014.Google Scholar
  8. Bean, C.E.W. (Ed.) (1916). The Anzac book: Written and collected in gallipoli by the men of Anzac. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  9. Bean, C.E.W. (1924). Official history of Australia in the War of 1914–18 (Vol II). Sydney: Angus and Robertson.Google Scholar
  10. Bean, C.E.W. (1952). Gallipoli mission. Canberra: Australian War Memorial.Google Scholar
  11. Beck, U. (1998). Democracy without enemies. Malden Mass: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  12. Beck, U. (2000). The cosmopolitan perspective: Sociology of the second age of modernity. British Journal of Sociology, 51(1), 79–105.Google Scholar
  13. Beck, U. (2009). World at risk. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  14. Bellah, R. (1967). Civil religion in America. Daedalus, 96, 1–21.Google Scholar
  15. Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A critique of the judgement of taste. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  16. Bourke, K. (1999). An intimate history of killing: Face-to-face killing in twentieth century warfare. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  17. Broadbent, H. (2011). ‘Loving Gallipoli (and the role of the Australian media),’ Paper delivered at the Nederlands Institute of Higher Education, Ankara. Online. Accessed 20 Jan 2014.
  18. Buchanan, R., & James, P. (1998–99). Lest we forget. Arena Magazine, 38, 25–30.Google Scholar
  19. Castles, S., et al. (1988). Mistaken identity. Sydney: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  20. Clifford, J. (1989). Notes on travel and theory. Inscriptions, 5, 177–188.Google Scholar
  21. Cohen, E. (1985). The tourist guide: The origins, structure and dynamics of a role. Annals of Tourism Research, 12, 5–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cohen, E. (1992). Pilgrimage centers: Concentric and excentric. Annals of Tourism Research, 19, 33–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cohen, E. (2003). Backpacking: Diversity and change. Tourism and Cultural Change, 1(2), 95–110.Google Scholar
  24. Collins, R. (2004). Interaction ritual chains. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Connell, R.W. (1995). Masculinities. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  26. Curthoys, A. (1999). Expulsion, exodus and exile in white Australian historical mythology. In R. Nile & M. Williams (Eds.), Imaginary homelands: The dubious cartographies of Australian identity (pp. 1–18). Brisbane: University of Queensland Press.Google Scholar
  27. Davison, G. (2003). The habit of commemoration and the revival of anzac day. Australian Cultural History, 23, 73–82.Google Scholar
  28. Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F (1987). A thousand plateaus. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  29. Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger. London: Routldege and Kegan Paul.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Edensor, T. (1998). Tourists at the Taj: Performance and meaning at a symbolic site. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Edensor, T. (2002). National identity, popular culture and everyday life. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  32. Elaide, M. (1963). Myth and reality. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  33. Elsrud, T. (2001). Risk creation in traveling: Backpacker adventure narration. Annals of Tourism Research, 28(3), 597–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fewster, K., Basarin, V., & Basarin, H.H. (1985). A Turkish view of Gallipoli: Canakkale. Richmond: Hodja.Google Scholar
  35. Fine, G.A. (1996). Reputational entrepreneurs and the memory of incompetence: Melting supporters, partisan warriors, and images of president harding. American Journal of Sociology, 101, 1159–1193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fiske, J., Hodge, B., Turner, G. (1988). Myths of Oz: Reading Australian popular culture. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  37. Gallipoli Litterbug Fallout. (2005). Sydney Morning Herald April 27. Accessed 20 June 2014.
  38. Geertz, C. (1968). Islam observed: Religious development in morocco and indonesia. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  40. Goffman, E. (1974). The presentation of self in everyday Life. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  41. Gotham, K. F. (2005). Tourism from above and below: Globalization, localization and New Orleans’s Mardi Gras. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 29(2), 309–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Greenblat, C.S., & Gagnon, J.H. (1983). Temporary strangers: Travel and tourism from a sociological perspective. Sociological Perspectives, 26(1), 89–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Greenfeld, L. (1992). Nationalism: Five roads to modernity. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Habermas, J. (1989). The structural transformation of the public sphere (trans: Thomas Burger). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  45. Halbwachs, M. (1941). La Topographie Legendaire des Evangiles. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  46. Halbwachs, M. (1980). The collective memory. New York: Harper & RowGoogle Scholar
  47. Halbwachs, M. (1992). On collective memory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  48. Igdemir, U. (1978). Ataturk and the Anzacs. Ankara: Turk Tarih Kurumu Basimevi.Google Scholar
  49. Inglis, K.S. (1987). Men, women, and war memorials: Anzac Australia. Daedalus, 116, 35–59.Google Scholar
  50. Inglis, K.S. (1998). Sacred places: War memorials in the Australian landscape. Carlton: Miegunyah Press.Google Scholar
  51. Inglis, K.S. (1999). The unknown Australian soldier. Journal of Australian Studies, 60, 8–17. Inglis, K. S. (2005). They shall not grow old. The Age. Accessed 15 Jan 2015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kapferer, B. (1988). Legends of people, myths of state. London: Smithsonian Institution Press.Google Scholar
  53. Kaplan, C. (1996). Questions of travel: Postmodern discourses of displacement. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  54. Kaplan, M., & Celik, T. (2008). The impact of tourism on economic performance: The case of Turkey. The International Journal of Applied Economics and Finance, 2(1), 13–18.Google Scholar
  55. Kelly, P. (1990). Commitment to their fellows key to tradition. The Australian 26 April: 2.Google Scholar
  56. Lake, M. (1992). Mission impossible: How men gave birth to the Australian nation Gender and History, 4(3), 305–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Leonard, R. (2009). The mystical gaze of the cinema: The films of peter weir. Carlton: Melbourne University Publishing.Google Scholar
  58. Lewis, P. (2000). Modernism, nationalism, and the novel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lloyd, D. (1981). Battlefield tourism: Pilgrimage and the commemoration of the Great War in Britain, Australia and Canada. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. MacCannell, D. (1976). The tourist. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  60. MacCannell, D. (2001). Tourist agency. Tourist Studies, 1(1), 23–38. Macdonald, S. (2006). Mediating heritage: Tour guides T the former Nazi Party rally grounds, Nuremberg. Tourist Studies, 6(2), 119–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Malcolm, X. (1966). Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Grove.Google Scholar
  62. Manne, R. (2007). A Turkish tale: Gallipoli and the Armenian genocide. The Monthly February.Google Scholar
  63. Marshall, S.L.A. (1947). Men against fire: The problem of battle command. New York: William Morrow & Co.Google Scholar
  64. Mauss, M. (1969). The gift. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. McKay, J. (1991). No pain, no gain? Sport and Australian culture. Sydney: Prentice Hall Australia.Google Scholar
  66. McKay, J. (2013a). A critique of the militarisation of australian history and culture thesis: The case of anzac battlefield tourism. PORTAL Journal of Multidisciplinary International Studies, 10(1), 1–15. Online. Available HTTP: Accessed 15 Jan 2014.Google Scholar
  67. Merton, R. (1936). The unanticipated consequences of purposive social action. American Sociological Review, 1(6), 894–904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Noy, C. (2004). This trip really changed me: Backpackers’ narratives of self-change. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(1), 78–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. O’Reilly, C.C. (2006). From drifter to gap year tourist: Mainstreaming backpacker travel. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(4), 998–1017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Peters, J.D. (2001). Witnessing. Media, Culture and Society, 23, 707–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Prakash, G. (1995). Orientalism now. History & Theory, 34(3), 199–212.Google Scholar
  72. Republic of Turkey (2013). Ministry of foreign affairs press release regarding the motion passed by the legislative council of the parliament of the state of New South Wales in Australia. No: 133, 7 May.Google Scholar
  73. Said, E. (1978). Orientalism. New York: Pantheon.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sather-Wagstaff, J. (2011). Heritage that hurts: Tourists in the memoryscapes of September 11. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  75. Shils, E. (1975). Center and periphery: Essays in macrosociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  76. Simpson, Catherine. (2007). Bonds of war: Tolga Ornek on ‘Gallipoli: The frontline’ and Australian-Turkish relations. Metro Magazine: Media & Education Magazine, 153, 92–95.Google Scholar
  77. Snowden, W. (2012). “Planning for Anzac Day 2015 at Gallipoli” Media Release: The Department of Veterans’ Affairs 26 September: Accessed 20 June 2014.
  78. Stanley, P. (2010). Bad characters: Sex, crime, mutiny and murder in the Australian Imperial Force. Sydney: Murdoch.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Taylor, P., & Cupper, P. (2000). Gallipoli: a battlefield Guide. Sydney: Kangaroo Press.Google Scholar
  80. Turner, V. (1974). Drama, fields and metaphors: Symbolic action in human society. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Turner, V. (1979). Process, performance and pilgrimage. New Delhi: Concept.Google Scholar
  82. Turner, G. (1994). Making It national: Nationalism and Australian popular culture. St Leonards: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  83. Turner, B. (2007). The enclave society: Towards a sociology if immobility. European Journal of Social Theory, 10(2), 287–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Turner, L., & Ash, J. (1975). The Golden Hordes: International tourism and the pleasure periphery. London: Constable.Google Scholar
  85. Turner, V., & Turner, E. (1978). Image and pilgrimage in christian culture. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Urry, J., & Larsen, J. (2012). the tourist gaze 3.0. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  87. Vice, S. (1997). Introducing bakhtin. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  88. Warner, L. (1959). The living and the dead. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Wagner-Pacifici, R. (2005). Dilemmas of the witness. In M. Jacobs & N. Hanrahan (Eds.), The blackwell companion to the sociology of culture. Oxford: Blackwell Press.Google Scholar
  90. Wagner-Pacifici, R., & Schwartz, B. (1991). The Vietnam veterans memorial: commemorating a difficult past. American Journal of Sociology, 97, 376–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ward S. J. (2004). A war memorial in celluloid: The Gallipoli legend in australian cinema, 1940–1980s. In J. Macleod (Ed.), Gallipoli: Making history (pp. 59–72). London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  92. Weir, P. (1981). Peter Weir on Gallipoli. Literature/Film Quarterly, 19(4), 213–217.Google Scholar
  93. West, B. (2008a). Enchanting pasts: The role of international civil religious pilgrimage in reimagining national collective memory. Sociological Theory, 26(3), 258–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. West, B. (2008b). Collective memory and crisis: The 2002 bali bombing, national heroic archetypes and the counter narrative of cosmopolitan nationalism. Journal of Sociology, 44(4), 337–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Winter, J. (1995). Sites of memory, sites of mourning: The great war in European cultural history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Zelizer, B. (1998). Remembering to forget: Holocaust memory through the camera’s eye. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  97. Ziino, B. (2006). Who own’s Gallipoli? Australia’s Gallipoli anxieties 1915–2005. Journal of Australian Studies, 88, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SociologyUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations