Advertisement

Routing in WSNs for Space Application

  • Mohamed Riduan AbidEmail author
  • Driss Benhaddou

Abstract

Wireless Sensors Networks are indispensable for applications whereby data needs to be sensed and transmitted from unfriendly terrains e.g., planets' surfaces.

The inherent ad-hoc nature of WSNs, whereby no topology can be defined in advance, imposes challenges to Routing. Sensor nodes have to detect each other and build an ad-hoc topology with specific gateways (e.g., sinks) that forward data to the control plane.

In this chapter, we present a deployment topology for WSNs in space applications, and delineate the challenges towards an optimal routing protocol that accounts basically for energy efficiency, self-organization, self-adaptation, and the use of multiple gateways. The latter disseminate data towards the control plane. In this context different WSNs routing protocols are surveyed and relevant trade-offs are presented and discussed.

References

  1. 1.
    Akyildiz I, Su W, Sankarasubramaniam Y, Cayirci E (2002) Wireless sensor networks: a survey. Comput Netw 38(4):393–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    IETF, Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET) Working Group. http://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/manet/charter/. Accessed Jan 2015
  3. 3.
    Conti M, Giordano S (2007) Multihop ad hoc networking: the theory. IEEE Commun Mag 45(4):78–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Conti M, Giordano S (2007) Multihop ad hoc networking: the reality. IEEE Commun Mag 45(4):88–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Satyajayant M, Guoliang X, Dejun Y (2012) Smart grid – the new and improved power grid: a survey. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials 14(4):Fourth QuarterGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gungor VC, Sahin D, Koçak T, Ergüt S, Buccella C, Cecati C, Hancke GP (2011) Smart Grid Technologies: communication technologies and standards. IEEE Trans Ind Inf 7(4):529–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Atzori L, Iera A, Morabito G (2010) The internet of things: a survey. Comput Netw 54(15):2787–2805CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Perkins CE, Royer EM (1999) Ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing. In: WMCSAGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Heinzelman W, Chandrakasan A, Balakrishnan H (2000) Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 33rd Hawaii international conference on system sciences (HICSS’00), January 2000Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Loscri V, Morabito G, Marano S (2005) A two levels hierarchy for low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (TL-LEACH). In: Proc. IEEE 62nd vehicular technology conferenceGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen J, Shen H (2008) MELEACH-L: more energy-efficient LEACH for large-scale WSNs. In: Proceedings of 2008 4th international conference on wireless communications on networking and mobile computing, Dalian, October 2008, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen J, Shen H (2007) MELEACH an energy-efficient routing protocol for WSNs. Chin J Sens Actuators 20:2089–2094Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Manjeshwar A, Agarwal DP (2001) TEEN: a routing protocol for enhanced efficiency in wireless sensor networks. In: First international workshop on parallel and distributed computing issues in wireless networks and mobile computingGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Manjeshwar A, Agarwal DP (2002) APTEEN: a hybrid protocol for efficient routing and comprehensive information retrieval in wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 16th international parallel and distributed processing symposium, pp 195–202Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ye M, Li C, Chen G, Wu J (2005) EECS: an energy efficient clustering scheme in wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 24th IEEE international performance, computing, and communications conference (IPCCC), Phoenix, AZ, USA, 7–9 April 2005, pp 535–540Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ye M, Li C, Chen G, Wu J (2006) An energy efficient clustering scheme in wireless sensor networks. Ad Hoc Sens Wireless Netw 3:99–119Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Younis O, Fahmy S (2004) HEED: a hybrid, energy-efficient, distributed clustering approach for ad-hoc sensor networks. IEEE Trans Mobile Comput 3:366–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lindsey S, Raghavendra C (2002) PEGASIS: power-efficient gathering in sensor information systems. IEEE Aerospace Conf Proc 3(9–16):1125–1130Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chang R, Kuo C (2006) An energy efficient routing mechanism for wireless sensor networks (MECH). In: Proceedings of the 20th international conference on advanced information networking and applications, vol 2. April 2006Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li Q, Aslam J, Rus D (2001) Hierarchical power-aware routing in sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the DIMACS workshop on pervasive networking, May 2001Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shin K, Song J, Kim J, Yu M, Mah P (2007) Reliable aware routing protocol for wireless sensor networks (REAR). In: 9th international conference on advanced communication technology, February 2007Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yu Y, Estrin D, Govindan R (2001) Geographical and energy-aware routing: a recursive data dissemination protocol for wireless sensor networks. In: UCLA Computer Science Department Technical Report, UCLA-CSD TR-01-0023, May 2001Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Watanabe M, Higaki H (2007) No-beacon GEDIR: location-based ad-hoc routing with less communication overhead. In: Fourth international conference on information technology (ITNG’07), 2–4 April 2007, pp 48–55Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Takehira T, Higaki H (2012) IRDT-GEDIR: shorter delay wireless multihop routing in sensor networks. In: 4th international congress on ultra-modern telecommunications and control systems and workshops (ICUMT), 3–5 October 2012, pp 857–863Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Takehira T, Higaki H (2012) IRDT-GEDIR: next-hop selection in intermittent wireless multihop sensor networks. In: 9th international conference on ubiquitous intelligence & computing and 9th international conference on autonomic & trusted computing (UIC/ATC), 4–7 September 2012, pp 894–899Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fu B, Xiao Y, Deng H, Zeng H (2014) A survey of cross-layer designs in wireless networks. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials 16(1):110–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gunasekaran R, Hairong Q (2008) XLRP: cross layer routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the wireless communications and networking conference (WCNC), March 31–April 3, 2008, pp 2135–2140Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Camillò A, Nati M, Petrioli C, Rossi M, Zorzi M (2013) IRIS: integrated data gathering and interest dissemination system for wireless sensor networks. Ad Hoc Netw 11(2):654–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Camillo A, Petrioli C (2012) Hands on IRIS: lessons learned from implementing a cross layer protocol stack for WSNs. In: Proceedings of IEEE global communications conference (GLOBECOM)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nakano T, Suda T (2005) Self-organizing network services with evolutionary adaptation. IEEE Trans Neural Netw 16(5):1269–1278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chun Y, LeiMinga X, MeiLin S (1999) Hierarchical on-demand routing for self-organized networks. In: Fifth Asia-pacific conference on communications and fourth optoelectronics and communications conference, October 1999Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Markham A, Wilkinson A (2006) The adaptive social hierarchy – a self organizing network based on naturally occurring structures. In: 1st bio-inspired models of network, information and computer systems, December 2006Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bernal Velazquez CF, Benhaddou D, Balakrishnan M, Anan M (2011) Energy efficient data dissemination in wireless sensor networks based on natural selection. In: 7th international in wireless communications and mobile computing conference (IWCMC), 4–8 July 2011, pp 577–582Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jaradat T, Benhaddou D, Balakrishnan M, Al-fuqaha A (2013) Energy efficient cross-layer routing protocol in wireless sensor networks based on fuzzy logic. In: 9th international wireless communications and mobile computing conference (IWCMC), 1–5 July 2013, pp 177–182Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Benhaddou D, Balakrishnan M, Yuan X, Chen J, Rungta M, Barton R, Yang H (2009) “Wireless Sensor Networks for Space Applications: Network Architecture and Protocol Enhancements,” in Sensors and Transducers journal Vol.7, Special Issue “MEMS: From Micro Devices to Wireless Systems”, pp. 203–212Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Science and Engineering, Alakhawayn University in IfraneIfraneMorocco
  2. 2.University of Houston, College of TechnologyHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations