Minimally Invasive Approach to Posterior Occiput to C2

  • Roberto Diaz
  • Miguel E. Berbeo


The C1–C2 joint is affected by multiple entities that may produce biomechanical instability. Optimal management for atlanto-axial instability has been searched by ways of different surgical techniques with different results, generating discussion between second effects of a particular treatment. Posterior cervical approach dissections can place the axial neck musculature and ligaments at risk of neural denervations or vascular compromise. Either of these entities may result in significant postoperative atrophy, cervical pain, and spine instability. Minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of spinal disorders allow to our patients less morbid procedures with equal or better results compared to conventional surgery. In the following chapter, we review the anatomy of the atlanto-axial joint and propose a minimally invasive trans-muscular C1–C2 fusion technique using C1 lateral-mass screws and C2 pedicular screws. We describe cases with surgical, clinical, and radiographic follow-up.


Atlanto-axial joint C1–C2 instability Minimally invasive Spinal fusion Dens fracture 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Edificio Global Medical CenterBogotáColombia
  2. 2.Unidad de Neurocirugía, Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Pontificia Universidad JaverianaBogotáColombia

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