Abstract

Urine toxicology screen is a potentially useful tool in monitoring the patient’s adherence to treatment. It is underutilized is many settings but may also be overutilized in others. This chapter summarizes the reasons and recommended frequency for this test. It also discusses the various types of urine toxicology screen, the expected results based on medication’s metabolism, as well as potential drawbacks such as false positives and negatives.

Keywords

Urine drug screen Urine drug testing Urine toxicology screen Urine toxicology test Immunoassay Confirmatory testing Chromatography Mass spectrometry False positives False negatives Opioids Benzodiazepines Addictive Misuse Risk Cross-reactivity Metabolism Drug-seeking behaviors Frequency 

Abbreviations

AED

Antiepileptic drug

CLIA

Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments

EPPD

2-Ethylidene-1,5-Dimethyl-3,3-Diphenylpyr-rolidine

ER

Emergency Room

EtOH

Ethanol

GM

Gas chromatography

HPLC

High performance liquid chromatography

IA

Immunoassay

LC/MS/MS

Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectro-metry

LSD

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

MDMA

3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine

MDPV

Methylenedioxypyrovalerone

MMTP

Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program

MS

Mass spectrometry

PCP

Phencyclidine

POC

Point of care

RDS

Random drug screen

TCA

Tricyclic

THC

Tetrahydrocannabinol

UDS

Urine drug screen

UTOX

Urine toxicology

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of California Irvine, Physical Medicine and RehabilitationIrvineUSA

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