Radiation Safety and Monitoring

  • Anuj Malhotra


Fluoroscopic guidance: used for pain procedures to identify bony landmarks located near target joints and nerves. Views are two dimensional, necessitating a mobile unit that can be rotated (C-arm) to provide different angles to determine appropriate needle localization.

X-rays: part of electromagnetic spectrum of radiation, produce ionizing radiation in the body which can cause damage via direct DNA damage or free radical production.


X-ray C-arm Fluoroscopy Lead shielding Occupational exposure Exposure Radiation Radiation units Digital subtraction Collimation Radiation absorbed dose (rad) Radiation equivalent in man (rem) Annual maximal permissible radiation dose Minimum organ radiation dose 



Automatic brightness control


Computed tomography


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    Singer G. Occupational radiation exposure to the surgeon. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2005;13:69–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pain Medicine, Department of AnesthesiologyIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA

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