Brain Imaging in People with HIV
In this short review, we show how brain imaging is used to understand brain changes that may occur in people living with HIV. Before combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) became widely available, people infected with HIV often had progressive brain degeneration, and even fatal infections of the central nervous system, if the virus multiplied unchecked. Since the cART era, the focus of HIV neuroimaging research has changed to understanding brain changes that may occur in people with chronic but stable disease, and what factors may help preserve the brain and resist change. A great deal has been learned about how HIV affects the developing and aging brain from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its variants—MR spectroscopy, diffusion imaging, and resting-state functional MRI. We review some of these developments, including some new techniques that are helping to understand treatment effects in drug trials, and how the virus and medications may affect brain development in children living with HIV.
KeywordsNeuroimaging HIV HIV-associated dementia (HAD) Prenatal infection Brain development Cognition
P.T. and N.J. are funded by National Institutes of Health grants NS080655, AG040060, EB008432, MH097268, AG024904, MH085667, and MH089722. J.R.A. was funded by National Institutes of Health grants EB00822 and NS044378 and by NeuroSpectroScopics LLC (after July 1, 2014) (for PT and NJ) R01MH102151 (to J. Ananworanich/P. Thompson) and the 2014 NIH Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) Initiative under grant U54 EB020403 (to PI Thompson).
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