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Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers of Animals Caused by Positive-Stranded RNA Viruses

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Global Virology I - Identifying and Investigating Viral Diseases

Abstract

The term “viral hemorrhagic fevers” (VHFs) can loosely be applied to many serious diseases of animals (including fish, who are incapable of a fever response). While VHFs of humans are caused by viruses, limited to only four to five families (i.e., Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, and possibly Rhabdoviridae), VHFs of animals are caused by a much broader variety of viruses. Therefore, Chaps. 11–14 were grouped using the Baltimore classification, i.e., by genome type, as opposed to the classification supported by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. As one could guess, the largest number of VHFs in animals is caused by mononegaviruses, but some are caused by viruses that have positive-sense or double-stranded RNA genomes, and some even have DNA genomes. This chapter focuses on positive-stranded RNA viruses. However, the reader is encouraged to read all four chapters to get an idea of the breadth of disease mechanisms and natural histories of this fascinating group of viruses that have both direct and indirect effects on humans, as well as implications for larger societal issues, such as food security and ecological dynamics. At the end of each chapter, “honorable mention” is given to some serious viral diseases that may have incomplete hemorrhagic features in regard to the definition provided in the introduction to the first chapter of this series.

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Acknowledgments

The authors have no conflict of interests. We thank Laura Bollinger (IRF-Frederick) for technical writing services. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the US Department of Health and Human Services, the US Department of Agriculture and/or of the institutions and companies affiliated with the authors. JHK performed this work as an employee of Tunnell Government Services, Inc., a subcontractor to Battelle Memorial Institute under its prime contract with NIAID, under Contract No. HHSN272200700016I.

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Correspondence to David White D.V.M., Ph.D., D.A.C.V.M. .

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Van Campen, H. et al. (2015). Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers of Animals Caused by Positive-Stranded RNA Viruses. In: Shapshak, P., Sinnott, J., Somboonwit, C., Kuhn, J. (eds) Global Virology I - Identifying and Investigating Viral Diseases. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2410-3_14

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