The family Bunyaviridae is one of the largest and most diverse of all viral families. It is comprised of viruses with negative-sense RNA genomes that produce enveloped spherical virions measuring 80–120 nm in diameter. All bunyavirus genomes consist of three segments (S, M, L), but they differ in their coding strategies to generate structural and nonstructural proteins. Virus replication occurs in the cytoplasm of infected cells, and virus particles mature inside the cell by budding primarily at the membranes of the Golgi apparatus. The family has over 400 member viruses that are classified predominantly into five genera: Hantavirus, Nairovirus, Orthobunyavirus, Phlebovirus, and Tospovirus. Bunyaviruses are distributed worldwide and infect vertebrate and invertebrate animals and plants. Viruses are transmitted by infected vectors, including mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, thrips, rodents, eulipotyphla, and bats. Infections in humans lead to a variety of illnesses ranging from mild febrile syndromes to severe respiratory illnesses or fatal hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitides. Some bunyaviruses cause disease in domestic animals and plants that result in significant economic losses. In many areas of the world, new disease syndromes caused by bunyaviruses are being characterized. In addition, with the use of new technologies for virus discovery, new bunyaviruses are continuing to be identified in new arthropod vectors and reservoir hosts, and it is likely this trend will continue into the future.
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The authors have no conflict of interests. We thank Laura Bollinger (IRF-Frederick) for technical writing services. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the US Department of Defense, the US Department of the Army, the US Department of Health and Human Services, or of the institutions and companies affiliated with the authors. J.H.K. performed this work as an employee of Tunnell Government Services, Inc., a subcontractor to Battelle Memorial Institute, and J.W. as an employee of Battelle Memorial Institute, both under Battelle’s prime contract with NIAID, under Contract No. HHSN272200700016I.
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Whitehouse, C.A., Kuhn, J.H., Wada, J., Ergunay, K. (2015). Family Bunyaviridae . In: Shapshak, P., Sinnott, J., Somboonwit, C., Kuhn, J. (eds) Global Virology I - Identifying and Investigating Viral Diseases. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2410-3_10
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