Current Trends and Advances in Bulk Crystallization and Freeze-Drying of Biopharmaceuticals



Recombinant biotherapeutics are generally purified, stored, and shipped as frozen liquids and ultimately processed by fill-finish operations into marketable drug products. While most biopharmaceuticals are processed and stored as frozen liquid substances, bulk crystallization and freeze-drying can be successfully applied as a finishing step for biopharmaceutical processing in several instances. The choice of final processing and holdup step for biopharmaceutical drug substance is ultimately determined by several factors including protein storage stability, processing volumes, equipment scale, and processing time. Insulin, the first approved recombinant biopharmaceutical for human use is one such therapeutic protein wherein the drug substance is processed, stored, shipped, and also marketed as a freeze-dried solid. The present chapter discusses the potential of bulk crystallization and bulk freeze-drying as unit operations in biopharmaceutical development. Further, the chapter discusses several instrumentation, process, and scale-up-related developments in the area of bulk crystallization and freeze-drying for biopharmaceuticals.


Bulk crystallization Protein crystallization Bulk freeze-drying Validation Scale-up Vapor diffusion Batch crystallization Moisture Powder bags GORE® LYOGUARD® 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Thermalin Diabetes LLCClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Julphar PharmaceuticalsRas Al KhaimahUAE

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