Traumatic Brain Injury and Subdural Hematoma

  • Larry E. DavisEmail author
  • Sarah Pirio Richardson


The chapter begins with a discussion of common major clinical features and mechanisms of damage from head trauma. Brain damage from traumatic brain injury (TBI) is divided into two mechanisms: primary and secondary brain injury. Primary injury describes the initial structural injury to the brain as a direct result of the impact on the brain and occurs at the moment of head trauma. Secondary brain injury begins at the time of brain trauma and progresses remote from the injury. It can develop from a compressive force like a depressed skull fracture, cerebral edema, parenchymal hemorrhage or extraparenchymal epidural or subdural hematoma. The chapter then discusses in detail traumatic brain injury, vertebral and spinal cord trauma, and chronic subdural hematoma with attention to their pathophysiology, major clinical features, major laboratory findings, and principles of management and prognosis.


Traumatic brain injury Subdural hematoma Concussion Glasgow coma scale Skull fracture Coma 

Recommended Reading

  1. Karrar EE, Mansour N, Bhansali A. Cranial and spinal cord trauma: current concepts. Dis Mon 2011;57:543–57. (Good review of pathophysiology and current management of TBI)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen JC, Levy ML. Causes, epidemiology, and risk factors of chronic subdural hematoma. Neurosurg Clin N Am 2000;11:399–406. (Entire issue devoted to chronic subdural hematoma)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Chief Neurology ServiceDistinguished Professor of Neurology New Mexico VA Health Care SystemAlbuquerqueUSA
  2. 2.Department of Neurology Health Sciences CenterUniversity of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA

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