The chapter begins with a discussion of common major clinical features and mechanisms of damage from head trauma. Brain damage from traumatic brain injury (TBI) is divided into two mechanisms: primary and secondary brain injury. Primary injury describes the initial structural injury to the brain as a direct result of the impact on the brain and occurs at the moment of head trauma. Secondary brain injury begins at the time of brain trauma and progresses remote from the injury. It can develop from a compressive force like a depressed skull fracture, cerebral edema, parenchymal hemorrhage or extraparenchymal epidural or subdural hematoma. The chapter then discusses in detail traumatic brain injury, vertebral and spinal cord trauma, and chronic subdural hematoma with attention to their pathophysiology, major clinical features, major laboratory findings, and principles of management and prognosis.
Traumatic brain injury Subdural hematoma Concussion Glasgow coma scale Skull fracture Coma
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