Seizures and Status Epilepticus
This chapter begins with a discussion that a seizure can have many causes such as metabolic derangements (severe hypoglycemia), infections (encephalitis or from high fever), drugs (amphetamines), drug-withdrawal (alcohol), genetic, or idiopathic. Next, the chapter describes the epidemiology of epilepsy, the pathophysiology of a seizure, and the value of an electroencephalogram in diagnosing seizures. The seizure classification system is then covered and its distinction from non-seizure events such as syncope, migraine, transient ischemic attack, psychogenic nonepileptic seizure, rage attacks, Meniere’s disease attack, and movement disorders. This chapter finishes with a complete description of focal seizures, generalized convulsive seizures (Grand Mal), absence seizures (Petit Mal), West’s syndrome, and status epilepticus. Attention is paid to their pathophysiology, major clinical features, major laboratory findings, and principles of management and prognosis.
KeywordsSeizure Epilepsy Generalized convulsion Focal seizure Absence seizure West’s syndrome Status epilepticus Electroencephalogram Psychogenic nonepileptic seizure
- Wiebe S. The epilepsies. In Goldman’s Cecil Medicine, 24th edn. In: Goldman L, Schafer A, editors. 2012:2283–2294. Elsevier Saunders. (A concise overview of seizures and epilepsy)Google Scholar