X-Ray Observations of Powerful AGN Outflows
Highly ionised winds with velocities ∼0.1–0.2c were first detected in X-ray spectra of non-BAL AGN a decade ago. Subsequent observations and archival searches have shown such winds to be a common feature of luminous AGN, increasing the belief that powerful ionised winds have a wider importance in galaxy feedback models. Paradoxically, for the best-quantified high velocity outflow (the luminous Seyfert PG1211+143) the wind appears too powerful to be compatible with the observed stellar bulge and black hole masses, suggesting the energy coupling of wind to bulge gas must be inefficient. A recent XMM-Newton observation of the narrow line Seyfert NGC 4051 offers an explanation of this apparent paradox, finding evidence for the fast ionised wind to lose most of its kinetic energy after shocking against the ISM. Importantly, the wind momentum is maintained through such a shock, supporting the view that a momentum-driven flow provides the critical link between black hole and stellar bulge growth implied by the observed M–σ relationship.
KeywordsAGN Feedback X-Ray astronomy
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