Recent Advancements in Gene Expression and Enabling Technologies in Crop Plants

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Strategies to Increase Heterologous Protein Expression in Rice Grains

  • Somen NandiAffiliated withGlobal HealthShare® Initiative, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California Email author 
  • , Gurdev S. KhushAffiliated withGlobal HealthShare® Initiative, Department of Plant Science, University of California

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Production of heterologous proteins for human therapeutics in plant-based platform is becoming commercially acceptable. Plant expression systems have several advantages, such as lower capital investment, low maintenance cost, absence of human pathogens, and complex posttranslational glycosylation capabilities. Recently, significant advances have been achieved in expression capacity, regulatory, gene-to-product development time, and protein glycosylation, although upstream technological achievements have not been matched by downstream processing advancements except in a few successful examples. Rice (Oryza sativa) grain have been used to produce recombinant proteins, peptides, monoclonal antibodies, multi-subunit proteins, vaccine antigens, fusion proteins, and enzymes, and have become one of the most potential recombinant protein expression platforms. This chapter evaluates important factors that enhance heterologous protein expression, specifically using rice grains as a platform, and advaces in posttranslational glycan modifications that are critical and usually required for preferred biological activity.


Heterologous proteins Rice grains Downstream processing Glycan modification