Over 150 years ago, Brown-Sequard demonstrated that the adrenal glands are essential for life. In the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex and medulla were isolated, purified, and synthesized for therapeutic use. In addition, their receptors, stimulators, inhibitors, co-activators, co-repressors, intracellular signaling cascades, and downstream effectors have been delineated. In the twenty-first century, the molecular genetics underlying many adrenal disorders have been uncovered.


Catecholamine Aldosterone Hypokalemia 

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone DiseasesMount Sinai (Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital)New YorkUSA

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