Nutrition in Pregnancy and Lactation

  • Bonny L. SpeckerEmail author
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)


Pregnancy and lactation are periods of significant change in calcium and bone metabolism for the mother. Physiological changes that occur insure that there is an adequate calcium supply for fetal growth, milk production, and maternal bone recovery. During pregnancy, low maternal calcium intake is associated with low neonatal BMC and maternal vitamin D deficiency influences fetal bone development and neonatal calcium homeostasis. Whether maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy influences infant growth trajectories or bone accrual later in childhood is not known. Due to potential adverse effects of high maternal vitamin D concentrations on the offspring, it is important that all current and future supplementation trials investigate the influence of not just low serum 25-OHD concentrations, but also high concentrations, on these outcomes.


Fetal programming Weaning Bone density Bone accrual Vitamin D deficiency 


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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ethel Austin Martin Program in Human NutritionSouth Dakota State UniversityBrookingsUSA

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