• Janay B. SanderEmail author
  • Jenny Herren
  • Jared A. Bishop


The symptoms of depression can be manifested in several ways, most often presenting as a sad or depressed mood but also as irritability or a loss of interest in activities (anhedonia). Suicidal ideation in depressed youths is of concern as it is a particularly common symptom in this population (Rohde, Beevers, Stice, & O’Neil, 2009). Importantly, depression is one of the most commonly occurring mental health disorders in children and adolescents. Up to 17 % of females may experience a depressive episode that meets diagnostic criteria by the time they reach age 20, with the peak point incidence of clinical depression near 5 % in 16-year-old females (Rohde et al., 2009). Youth in high-risk communities, including non-Caucasian ethnic groups (Rohde et al., 2009) and youths from poverty-stricken areas are at even greater risk for depressive symptoms (Riolo, Nguyen, Greden, & King, 2005). In low-risk community samples, between 8 % and 20 % of children aged 11–18 may be experiencing depressive symptoms (Diamantopoulou, Verhulst, & van der Ende, 2011). While both male and female youth experience clinical depression, females have a typically higher prevalence rates for the disorder at the onset of adolescence.


Depressive Symptom Major Depressive Disorder School Setting Negative Thought Depression Intervention 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janay B. Sander
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jenny Herren
    • 2
  • Jared A. Bishop
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyBall State UniversityMuncieUSA
  2. 2.Judge Baker Children’s Center & Harvard UniversityBostonUSA

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