Cognitive Interventions

  • Prerna AroraEmail author
  • Patrick PösselEmail author
  • Allison D. Barnard
  • Mark TerjesenEmail author
  • Betty S. LaiEmail author
  • Caroline J. Ehrlich
  • Kathleen I. Diaz
  • Rebecca Rialon Berry
  • Anna K. Gogos


Cognitive-behavioral interventions are founded on the principle that individuals’ thoughts about their experiences and themselves influence their affect and behavior (Beck, 1967). When these thoughts are distorted, they can trigger maladaptive information processing, leading to the development of pathological symptoms. The central tenet underlying cognitive-based treatments is that therapeutic change occurs when individuals successfully transform their dysfunctional cognitions and behaviors (Curry & Reinecke, 2003). Cognitive restructuring methods are used to address dysfunctional cognitions, including expectations, beliefs, and self-statements (Beck, Shaw, Rush, & Emery, 1979).


Irrational Belief Test Anxiety Cognitive Restructuring Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Cognitive Intervention 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Hoeber.Google Scholar
  2. Beck, A. T. (1993). The past and future of cognitive therapy. The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research, 6, 276–284.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, J. S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T., Shaw, B. F., Rush, A. J., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bernard, M. E. (1990). Rational-emotive therapy with children and adolescents: Treatment strategies. School Psychology Review, 19, 294–303.Google Scholar
  6. Bernard, M. E., Ellis, A., & Terjesen, M. D. (2006). Rational emotive behavior approaches to childhood disorders: History, theory, practice and research. In A. Ellis & M. E. Bernard (Eds.), Rational emotive behavior approaches to childhood disorders. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  7. Bernard, M. E., & Pires, D. (2006a). Emotional resilience in children and adolescence: Implications for rational-emotive behavior therapy. In A. Ellis & M. E. Bernard (Eds.), Rational emotive behavioral approaches to childhood disorders: Theory, practice and research (pp. 156–174). New York, NY: Springer Science and Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brinkmeyer, M., & Eyberg, S. M. (2003). Parent-child interaction therapy for oppositional children. In A. E. Kazdin & J. R. Weisz (Eds.), Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents (pp. 204–223). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  9. Bugental, D. B., & Schwartz, A. (2009). A cognitive approach to child mistreatment prevention among medically at-risk infants. Developmental Psychology, 45, 284–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cautela, J. R. (1973). Covert processes and behavior modification. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 157(1), 27–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cautela, J. R. (1982). Covert conditioning with children. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 13(3), 209–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cautela, J. R., & Baron, M. G. (1977). Covert conditioning: A theoretical analysis. Behavior Modification, 1(3), 351–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cautela, J. R., & Bennett, A. K. (2001). Covert conditioning. In R. J. Corsini (Ed.), Handbook of innovative therapy (2nd ed., pp. 125–136). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  14. Cautela, J. R., Flannery, R. B., & Hanley, S. (1974). Covert modeling: An experimental test. Behavior Therapy, 5, 494–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cautela, J. R., & Kearney, A. J. (1990). Behavior analysis, cognitive therapy, and covert conditioning. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 21(2), 83–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cholewa, B., Smith-Adcock, S., & Amatea, E. (2010). Decreasing elementary school children’s disruptive behavior: A review of four evidenced-based programs for school counselors. Journal of School Counseling, 8, 1–35.Google Scholar
  17. Clarke, G. N., Hornbrook, M., Lynch, F., Polen, M., Gale, J., Beardslee, W., et al. (2001). A randomized trial of a group cognitive intervention for preventing depression in adolescent offspring of depressed parents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 1127–1134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clarke, G. N., Rodhe, P., Lewinsohn, P. M., Hops, H., & Seeley, J. R. (1999). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of adolescent depression: Efficacy of acute group treatment and booster sessions. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 272–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cohen, J. A., & Mannarino, A. P. (2000). Predictors of treatment outcome in sexually abused children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24, 983–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (2006). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  21. Cormier, S., Nurius, P., & Osborne, C. J. (2012). Interviewing and change strategies for helpers: Fundamental skills and cognitive behavioral interventions (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  22. Curry, J. F., & Reinecke, M. A. (2003). Modular cognitive behavior therapy for adolescents with major depression. In M. Reinecke, F. Durrilio, & A. Freeman (Eds.), Cognitive therapy with children and adolescents (2nd ed., pp. 95–127). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  23. David, D., & Szentagotai, A. (2006). Cognition in cognitive-behavioral psychotherapies: Toward an integrative model. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(3), 284–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. David, D., Szentagotai, A., Eva, K., & Macavei, B. (2005). A synopsis of rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT): Fundamental and applied research. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, 23(3), 175–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. David-Ferdon, C., & Kaslow, N. J. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(1), 62–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. DiGiuseppe, R., & Bernard, M. E. (2006). REBT assessment and treatment with children. In A. Ellis & M. E. Bernard (Eds.), Rational emotive behavioral approaches to childhood disorders: Theory, practice and research (pp. 85–114). New York, NY: Springer Science and Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. DiGiuseppe, R., Doyle, K., Dryden, W., & Backx, W. (2013). A practitioner’s guide to rational-emotive behavior therapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Eckstein, D. (1997). Reframing as a specific interpretive counseling technique. Individual Psychology, 53, 418–428.Google Scholar
  29. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel.Google Scholar
  30. Ellis, A., & Bernard, M. E. (Eds.). (2006). Rational emotive behavior approaches to childhood disorders. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Ellis, A., & Blau, S. (1998). Rational emotive behavior therapy. Directions in Clinical and Counseling Psychology, 8, 41–56.Google Scholar
  32. Esposito, M. A. (2009). REBT with children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review of efficacy studies. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. The Sciences and Engineering, 70(5-B), 138.Google Scholar
  33. Gonzalez, J. E., Nelson, J. R., Gutkin, T. B., Saunders, A., Galloway, A., & Shwery, C. S. (2004). Rational emotive therapy with children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12(4), 222–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Grave, J., & Blissett, J. (2004). Is cognitive behavior therapy developmentally appropriate for young children? A critical review of the evidence. Clinical Psychology Review, 24(4), 399–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hains, A. A. (1992). A stress inoculation training program for adolescents in a high school setting: A multiple baseline approach. Journal of Adolescence, 15, 163–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hains, A. A., & Ellmann, S. W. (1994). Stress inoculation training as a preventative intervention for high school youths. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 8, 219–232.Google Scholar
  37. Hains, A. A., & Szyjakowski, M. (1990). A cognitive stress-reduction intervention program for adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37, 79–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Harrington, N. (2011). Frustration intolerance: Therapy issues and strategies. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, 29, 4–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hastings, R. P., Allen, R., McDermott, K., & Still, D. (2002). Factors related to positive perceptions in mothers of children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 15, 269–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hughes, J. S., Gourley, M. K., Madson, L., & Le Blanc, K. (2011). Stress and coping activity, reframing negative thoughts. Teaching of Psychology, 38, 36–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hyland, P., & Boduszek, D. (2012). Resolving a difference between cognitive therapy and rational emotive behavior therapy: Towards the development of an integrated CBT model of psychopathology. Mental Health Review Journal, 17(2), 104–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jacob, S., Decker, D. M., & Hartshorne, T. S. (2011). Ethics and law for school psychologists (6th ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  43. Jaycox, L., Reivich, K., Gillham, J., & Seligman, M. (1994). Prevention of depressive symptoms in school children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32(8), 801–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kaslow, N., & Thompson, M. (1998). Applying the criteria for empirically supported treatments to studies of psychosocial interventions for child and adolescent depression. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(2), 146–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kass, R. G., & Fish, J. M. (1991). Positive reframing and the test performance of test anxious children. Psychology in the Schools, 28, 43–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kazdin, A. E. (1973). Covert modeling and the reduction of avoidance behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 81(1), 87–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kazdin, A. E. (1975). Covert modeling, imagery assessment, and assertive behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43(5), 716–724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kazdin, A. E. (1977). Research issues in covert conditioning. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1(1), 45–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kazdin, A. E. (1980). Covert and overt rehearsal and elaboration during treatment in the development of assertive behavior. Behavior Research and Therapy, 18, 191–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kendall, P. C., & Braswell, L. (1982). Cognitive-behavioral self-control therapy for children: A components analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50(5), 672–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kiselica, M. S., Baker, S. B., Thomas, R. N., & Reedy, S. (1994). Effects of stress inoculation training on anxiety, stress, and academic performance among adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 41, 335–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Krop, H., Calhoon, B., & Verrier, R. (1971). Modification of the “self-concept” of emotionally disturbed children by covert reinforcement. Behavior Therapy, 2, 201–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Maag, J. W., & Kotlash, J. (1994). Review of stress inoculation training in children and adolescents. Issues and recommendations. Behavior Modification, 18, 443–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Manno, B., & Marston, A. R. (1972). Weight reduction as a function of negative covert reinforcement (sensitization) versus positive covert reinforcement. Behavior Research and Therapy, 10, 201–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Marshall, W. L., Boutilier, J., & Minnes, P. (1974). The modification of phobic behavior by covert reinforcement. Behavior Therapy, 5, 469–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McCarty, C. A., & Weisz, J. R. (2007). Effects of psychotherapy for depression in children and adolescents: What we can (and can’t) learn from meta-analysis and component profiling. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(7), 879–886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McIntosh, D. E., Rizza, M. G., & Bliss, L. (2000). Implementing empirically supported interventions: Teacher-child interaction therapy. Psychology in the Schools, 37, 453–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Meichenbaum, D. W. (1975). Self-instructional approach to stress management. A proposal for stress inoculation training. In C. D. Spielberger & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Stress and anxiety (Vol. 1). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  59. Meichenbaum, D. W. (1993). Stress inoculation training: A 20-year update. In P. M. Lehrer & R. L. Woolfolk (Eds.), Principles and practice of stress management. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  60. Meichenbaum, D. W. (2007). Stress inoculation training: A preventive and treatment approach. In P. M. Lehrer, R. L. Woolfolk, & W. S. Sime (Eds.), Principles and practice of stress management (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  61. Meichenbaum, D. W. (2008). Stress inoculation training. In W. O’Donohue & J. E. Fisher (Eds.), Cognitive behavior therapy: Applying empirically supported techniques in your practice (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  62. Morris, A. S., Silk, J. S., Morris, M. D. S., Steinberg, L., Aucoin, K. J., & Keyes, A. W. (2011). The influence of mother-child emotion regulation strategies on children’s expression of anger and sadness. Developmental Psychology, 47, 213–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ollendick, T., & King, N. (1998). Empirically supported treatments for children with phobic and anxiety disorders: Current status. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27(2), 156–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pottie, C. G., & Ingram, K. M. (2008). Daily stress, coping, and well-being in parents of children with autism: A multilevel modeling approach. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 855–864.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Reynaert, C., & Janne, P. (2011). Reframing “reframing”: Another look at “reframing” inspired by a sonnet by Charles Baudelaire. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 39, 419–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rosenberg, H. J., Jankowski, M. K., Fortuna, L. R., Rosenberg, S. D., & Mueser, K. T. (2011). A pilot study of a cognitive restructuring program for treating posttraumatic disorders in adolescents. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 3(1), 94–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sava, F. A., Maricutoiu, L. P., Rusu, S., Macsinga, I., & Virga, D. (2011). Implicit and explicit self-esteem and irrational beliefs. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 11(1), 97–111.Google Scholar
  68. Seaward, B. L. (2006). Stress management: Principles and strategies for health and well-being (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Jones & Bartlett.Google Scholar
  69. Shirk, S., & Karver, M. S. (2006). Process issues in cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth. In P. Kendall (Ed.), Child & adolescent therapy (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  70. Silverman, W. K., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2008). The second special issue on evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents: A ten-year update. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37(1), 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Silverman, W. K., Pina, A. A., & Viswesvaran, C. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37, 105–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Spence, S. H. (1994). Practitioner review: Cognitive therapy with children and adolescents: From theory to practice. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 35, 1191–1228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Stark, K. (2008). Experiences implementing the ACTION treatment program: Implications for preventive interventions. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 15(4), 342–345.Google Scholar
  74. Stoeber, J., & Janssen, D. P. (2011). Perfectionism and coping with daily failures: Positive reframing helps achieve satisfaction at the end of the day. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 24, 477–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Szentagotai, A., & Freeman, A. (2007). An analysis of the relationship between irrational beliefs and automatic thoughts in predicting distress. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 7, 1–11.Google Scholar
  76. Walker, C. J., & Clement, P. W. (1992). Treating inattentive, impulsive, hyperactive children with self-modeling and stress inoculation training. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 14, 75–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Weersing, V. R., Iyengar, S., Birmaher, B., Kolko, D. J., & Brent, D. A. (2006). Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression: A benchmarking investigation. Behavior Therapy, 37, 36–48.Google Scholar
  78. Weisz, J. R., McCarty, C. A., & Valeri, S. M. (2006). Effects of psychotherapy for depression in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132(1), 132–149.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wolmer, L., Hamiel, D., & Laor, N. (2011). Preventing children’s posttraumatic stress after disaster with teacher-based intervention: A controlled study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50, 340–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ysseldyke, J. E., Burns, M. K., Dawson, M., Kelly, B., Morrison, D., Ortiz, S., et al. (2006). School psychology: A blueprint for the future of training and practice III. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryUniversity of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of Educational & Counseling Psychology, Counseling, and College Student PersonnelUniversity of LouisvilleLouisvilleUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologySt. John’s UniversityJamaicaUSA
  4. 4.Division of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsSchool of Public Health, Georgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MiamiCoral GablesUSA
  6. 6.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesStanford School of MedicineStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations