FAO/WHO/UNU. Energy and protein requirements. Geneva 1985.
FAO/WHO. Energy and protein requirements. Geneva 1973.
Rose WC. The amino acid requirements of adult man. Nutr Abstr Rev Ser Hum Exp. 1957;27(3):631–47.
Young VR, Tharakan JF. Metabolic and therapeutic aspects of amino acids in clinical nutrition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2004.
Young VR, Scrimshaw NS. The nutritional significance of plasma and urinary amino acids. New York: Pergamon Press; 1972.
Harper AE, Benevenga NJ, Wohlhueter RM. Effects of ingestion of disproportionate amounts of amino acids. Physiol Rev. 1970;50(3):428–558.
Pion R. The relationship between the levels of free amino acids in blood and muscle and the nutritive value of proteins. New York: Academic; 1973.
Young VR, Tontisirin K, Ozalp I, Lakshmanan F, Scrimshaw NS. Plasma amino acid response curve and amino acid requirements in young men: valine and lysine. J Nutr. 1972;102(9):1159–69.
Tontisirin K, Young VR, RAND WM, Scrimshaw NS. Plasma threonine response curve and threonine requirements of young men and elderly women. J Nutr. 1974;104:495–505.
Layman DK. The role of leucine in weight loss diets and glucose homeostasis. J Nutr. 2003;133(1):261S–7.
MEXT: Ministry of Education C, Sports, Science and Technology. STANDARD TABLES OF FOOD COMPOSITION IN JAPAN AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF FOODS 2010.
Ichihara A, Koyama E. Transaminase of branched chain amino acids. I Branched chain amino acids-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase. J Biochem. 1966;59(2):160–9.
Wahren J, Felig P, Hagenfeldt L. Effect of protein ingestion on splanchnic and leg metabolism in normal man and in patients with diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest. 1976;57(4):987–99.
Cynober L, Harris RA. Symposium on branched-chain amino acids: conference summary. J Nutr. 2006;136(1 Suppl):333S–6.
Zhang Y, Guo K, LeBlanc RE, Loh D, Schwartz GJ, Yu YH. Increasing dietary leucine intake reduces diet-induced obesity and improves glucose and cholesterol metabolism in mice via multimechanisms. Diabetes. 2007;56(6):1647–54.
Lynch CJ, Gern B, Lloyd C, Hutson SM, Eicher R, Vary TC. Leucine in food mediates some of the postprandial rise in plasma leptin concentrations. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;291(3):E621–30.
Macotela Y, Emanuelli B, Bang AM, et al. Dietary leucine–an environmental modifier of insulin resistance acting on multiple levels of metabolism. PLoS One. 2011;6(6):e21187.
Doi M, Yamaoka I, Nakayama M, Sugahara K, Yoshizawa F. Hypoglycemic effect of isoleucine involves increased muscle glucose uptake and whole body glucose oxidation and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292(6):E1683–93.
Noguchi Y, Nishikata N, Shikata N, et al. Ketogenic essential amino acids modulate lipid synthetic pathways and prevent hepatic steatosis in mice. PLoS One. 2010;5(8):e12057.
Theytaz F, Noguchi Y, Egli L, et al. Effects of supplementation with essential amino acids on intrahepatic lipid concentrations during fructose overfeeding in humans. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(5):1008–16.
Bernard JR, Liao YH, Hara D, et al. An amino acid mixture improves glucose tolerance and insulin signaling in Sprague-Dawley rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;300(4):E752–60.
Murakami H, Shimbo K, Inoue Y, Takino Y, Kobayashi H. Importance of amino acid composition to improve skin collagen protein synthesis rates in UV-irradiated mice. Amino Acids. 2012;42(6):2481–9.
Solerte SB, Fioravanti M, Locatelli E, et al. Improvement of blood glucose control and insulin sensitivity during a long-term (60 weeks) randomized study with amino acid dietary supplements in elderly subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiol. 2008;101(11A):82E–8.
Qin LQ, Xun P, Bujnowski D, et al. Higher branched-chain amino acid intake is associated with a lower prevalence of being overweight or obese in middle-aged East Asian and Western adults. J Nutr. 2011;141(2):249–54.
Rennie MJ, Edwards RH, Halliday D, Matthews DE, Wolman SL, Millward DJ. Muscle protein synthesis measured by stable isotope techniques in man: the effects of feeding and fasting. Clin Sci (Lond). 1982;63(6):519–23.
Bennet WM, Connacher AA, Scrimgeour CM, Rennie MJ. The effect of amino acid infusion on leg protein turnover assessed by L-[15 N]phenylalanine and L-[1-13C]leucine exchange. Eur J Clin Invest. 1990;20(1):41–50.
Bohe J, Low A, Wolfe RR, Rennie MJ. Human muscle protein synthesis is modulated by extracellular, not intramuscular amino acid availability: a dose-response study. J Physiol. 2003;552(Pt 1):315–24.
Dillon EL, Sheffield-Moore M, Paddon-Jones D, et al. Amino acid supplementation increases lean body mass, basal muscle protein synthesis, and insulin-like growth factor-I expression in older women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(5):1630–7.
Solerte SB, Gazzaruso C, Bonacasa R, et al. Nutritional supplements with oral amino acid mixtures increases whole-body lean mass and insulin sensitivity in elderly subjects with sarcopenia. Am J Cardiol. 2008;101(11A):69E–77.
Morley JE, Argiles JM, Evans WJ, et al. Nutritional recommendations for the management of sarcopenia. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2010;11(6):391–6.
Kim HK, Suzuki T, Saito K, et al. Effects of exercise and amino acid supplementation on body composition and physical function in community-dwelling elderly Japanese sarcopenic women: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(1):16–23.
Aquilani R, Zuccarelli GC, Dioguardi FS, et al. Effects of oral amino acid supplementation on long-term-care-acquired infections in elderly patients. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2011;52(3):e123–8.
Dal Negro RW, Aquilani R, Bertacco S, Boschi F, Micheletto C, Tognella S. Comprehensive effects of supplemented essential amino acids in patients with severe COPD and sarcopenia. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2010;73(1):25–33.
Aquilani R, Boselli M, Boschi F, et al. Branched-chain amino acids may improve recovery from a vegetative or minimally conscious state in patients with traumatic brain injury: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008;89(9):1642–7.
Smriga M, Ghosh S, Mouneimne Y, Pellett PL, Scrimshaw NS. Lysine fortification reduces anxiety and lessens stress in family members in economically weak communities in Northwest Syria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101(22):8285–8.
Smriga M, Torii K. L-Lysine acts like a partial serotonin receptor 4 antagonist and inhibits serotonin-mediated intestinal pathologies and anxiety in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100(26):15370–5.