The Extraperitoneal Spaces

  • Ayman H. Gaballah
  • Akram M. Shaaban
  • Yehia Mostafa Elguindy
  • Khaled M. Elsayes


The extraperitoneal spaces are compartmentalized spaces defined by peritoneum internally and parietal muscular fascia, including transversalis fascia, externally.


Inferior Vena Cava Bronchogenic Cyst Extraperitoneal Space Perirenal Space Renal Fascia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Mirilas P, Skandalakis JE. Surgical anatomy of the retroperitoneal spaces part II: the architecture of the retroperitoneal space. Am Surg. 2010;76(1):33–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Auh YH, et al. Extraperitoneal paravesical spaces: CT delineation with US correlation. Radiology. 1986;159(2):319–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aikawa H, et al. Pelvic extension of retroperitoneal fluid: analysis in vivo. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998;171(3):671–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    O’Connell AM, et al. CT of pelvic extraperitoneal spaces: an anatomical study in cadavers. Clin Radiol. 2007;62(5):432–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mirilas P, Skandalakis JE. Surgical anatomy of the retroperitoneal spaces–part I: embryogenesis and anatomy. Am Surg. 2009;75(11):1091–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fritsch H. Development and organization of the pelvic connective tissue in the human fetus. Ann Anat. 1993;175(6):531–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Parienty RA, et al. Visibility and thickening of the renal fascia on computed tomograms. Radiology. 1981;139(1):119–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Korobkin M, et al. CT of the extraperitoneal space: normal anatomy and fluid collections. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1992;159(5):933–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kneeland JB, et al. Perirenal spaces: CT evidence for communication across the midline. Radiology. 1987;164(3):657–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lim JH, et al. Superior aspect of the perirenal space: anatomy and pathological correlation. Clin Radiol. 1988;39(4):368–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aizenstein RI, Wilbur AC, O’Neil HK. Interfascial and perinephric pathways in the spread of retroperitoneal disease: refined concepts based on CT observations. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997;168(3):639–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gore RM, et al. The great escape: interfascial decompression planes of the retroperitoneum. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2000;175(2):363–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Molmenti EP, et al. Anatomy of the retroperitoneum: observations of the distribution of pathologic fluid collections. Radiology. 1996;200(1):95–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Meyers MA, et al. Radiologic features of extraperitoneal effusions. An anatomic approach. Radiology. 1972;104(2):249–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Oliphant M, Berne AS, Meyers MA. Spread of disease via the subperitoneal space: the small bowel mesentery. Abdom Imaging. 1993;18(2):109–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chesbrough RM, et al. Gerota versus Zuckerkandl: the renal fascia revisited. Radiology. 1989;173(3):845–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Torres GM, et al. Iliopsoas compartment: normal anatomy and pathologic processes. Radiographics. 1995;15(6):1285–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Muttarak M, Peh WC. CT of unusual iliopsoas compartment lesions. Radiographics. 2000;20(Spec No):S53–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lenchik L, Dovgan DJ, Kier R. CT of the iliopsoas compartment: value in differentiating tumor, abscess, and hematoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1994;162(1):83–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Donovan PJ, Zerhouni EA, Siegelman SS. CT of the psoas compartment of the retroperitoneum. Semin Roentgenol. 1981;16(4):241–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chen N, et al. Radiologic and anatomic study of the extraperitoneal space associated with the rectum. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;194(3):642–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Leffler KS, et al. Attachment of the rectovaginal septum to the pelvic sidewall. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;185(1):41–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Grabbe E, Lierse W, Winkler R. The perirectal fascia: morphology and use in staging of rectal carcinoma. Radiology. 1983;149(1):241–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Muntean V. The surgical anatomy of the fasciae and the fascial spaces related to the rectum. Surg Radiol Anat. 1999;21(5):319–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Frohlich B, Hotzinger H, Fritsch H. Tomographical anatomy of the pelvis, pelvic floor, and related structures. Clin Anat. 1997;10(4):223–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hain KS, et al. Presacral masses: multimodality imaging of a multidisciplinary space. Radiographics. 2013;33(4):1145–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hashimoto M, et al. Pictorial review: subperitoneal spaces of the broad ligament and sigmoid mesocolon–imaging findings. Clin Radiol. 1998;53(12):875–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Haddad MC, et al. Radiology of perinephric fluid collections. Clin Radiol. 2002;57(5):339–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thornton FJ, et al. Helical CT evaluation of the perirenal space and its boundaries: a cadaveric study. Radiology. 2001;218(3):659–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mindell HJ, et al. Anatomic communications between the three retroperitoneal spaces: determination by CT-guided injections of contrast material in cadavers. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995;164(5):1173–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lim JH, et al. Right perirenal space. Computed tomography evidence of communication between the bare area of the liver. Clin Imaging. 1990;14(3):239–44; discussion 259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kim KW, et al. CT of retroperitoneal extension of hepatoma mimicking adrenal tumor. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1993;17(4):599–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tandon N, et al. Amoebic liver abscess: rupture into retroperitoneum. Gastrointest Radiol. 1991;16(3):240–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Healy JC, Reznek RH. The peritoneum, mesenteries and omenta: normal anatomy and pathological processes. Eur Radiol. 1998;8(6):886–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Alexander ES, Colley DP, Clark RA. Computed tomography of retroperitoneal fluid collections. Semin Roentgenol. 1981;16(4):268–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bennett HF, Balfe DM. MR imaging of the peritoneum and abdominal wall. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 1995;3(1):99–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Engelken JD, Ros PR. Retroperitoneal MR imaging. Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 1997;5(1):165–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Paley M, et al. Retroperitoneal collections–aetiology and radiological implications. Clin Radiol. 1997;52(4):290–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Madiba TE, Muckart DJ. Retroperitoneal haematoma and related organ injury–management approach. S Afr J Surg. 2001;39(2):41–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Daly KP, et al. Traumatic retroperitoneal injuries: review of multidetector CT findings. Radiographics. 2008;28(6):1571–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ishikawa K, et al. Traumatic retroperitoneal hematoma spreads through the interfascial planes. J Trauma. 2005;59(3):595–607; discussion 607–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Feliciano DV. Management of traumatic retroperitoneal hematoma. Ann Surg. 1990;211(2):109–23.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bosniak MA. Spontaneous subcapsular and perirenal hematomas. Radiology. 1989;172(3):601–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Belville JS, et al. Spontaneous perinephric and subcapsular renal hemorrhage: evaluation with CT, US, and angiography. Radiology. 1989;172(3):733–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Orwig D, Federle MP. Localized clotted blood as evidence of visceral trauma on CT: the sentinel clot sign. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1989;153(4):747–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Shanmuganathan K, Mirvis SE, Sover ER. Value of contrast-enhanced CT in detecting active hemorrhage in patients with blunt abdominal or pelvic trauma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1993;161(1):65–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yang DM, et al. Retroperitoneal cystic masses: CT, clinical, and pathologic findings and literature review. Radiographics. 2004;24(5):1353–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bradley Jr WG. Hemorrhage and hemorrhagic infections in the brain. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 1994;4(4):707–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bradley Jr WG. MR appearance of hemorrhage in the brain. Radiology. 1993;189(1):15–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Clark RA, et al. Acute hematomas: effects of deoxygenation, hematocrit, and fibrin-clot formation and retraction on T2 shortening. Radiology. 1990;175(1):201–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Balci NC, et al. Acute and subacute liver-related hemorrhage: MRI findings. Magn Reson Imaging. 1999;17(2):207–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wintermark M, et al. MR pattern of hyperacute cerebral hemorrhage. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2002;15(6):705–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hahn PF, et al. Intraabdominal hematoma: the concentric-ring sign in MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987;148(1):115–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Siegelman ES, Outwater EK. The concentric-ring sign revisited. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;166(6):1493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Federle MP, Jeffrey Jr RB. Hemoperitoneum studied by computed tomography. Radiology. 1983;148(1):187–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Federle MP, Pan KT, Pealer KM. CT criteria for differentiating abdominal hemorrhage: anticoagulation or aortic aneurysm rupture? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188(5):1324–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Alonso RC, et al. Kidney in danger: CT findings of blunt and penetrating renal trauma. Radiographics. 2009;29(7):2033–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Titton RL, et al. Urine leaks and urinomas: diagnosis and imaging-guided intervention. Radiographics. 2003;23(5):1133–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lang EK, Glorioso 3rd L. Management of urinomas by percutaneous drainage procedures. Radiol Clin North Am. 1986;24(4):551–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Al-Qudah HS, Santucci RA. Complications of renal trauma. Urol Clin North Am. 2006;33(1):41–53, vi.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kawashima A, et al. Imaging of renal trauma: a comprehensive review. Radiographics. 2001;21(3):557–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gayer G, et al. Urinomas caused by ureteral injuries: CT appearance. Abdom Imaging. 2002;27(1):88–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Marcos HB, Noone TC, Semelka RC. MRI evaluation of acute renal trauma. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1998;8(4):989–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mueller PR, et al. Detection and drainage of bilomas: special considerations. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1983;140(4):715–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Chang ML, Lin DY. Symptomless cyst formation at the location of a biloma resolved with a single aspiration: case report. Chang Gung Med J. 2000;23(12):794–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Satake K, et al. A large retroperitoneal encapsulation of bile from a spontaneous perforation of the common bile duct. Am J Gastroenterol. 1985;80(4):279–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Colovic R, Perisic-Savic M. Retroperitoneal biloma secondary to operative common bile duct injury. HPB Surg. 1991;3(3):193–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Neoptolemos JP, et al. Abdominal wall bile staining and ‘biliscrotum’ after retroperitoneal perforation following endoscopic sphincterotomy. Br J Surg. 1984;71(9):684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Brady RR, McAteer E, Weir CD. Biliscrotum and retroperitoneal biloma: spontaneous rupture of the biliary system presenting as an incarcerated inguinal hernia. Ulster Med J. 2006;75(1):85–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Stojanovic M, Radojkovic M, Jeremic L. Double giant chronic bilomas with late presentation: 9 years after cholecystectomy. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2008;393(4):617–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Takahashi K, et al. Spontaneous rupture of a biliary diverticulum in the distal common bile duct, with formation of a retroperitoneal biloma. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;61(6):783–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Vitellas KM, et al. Using contrast-enhanced MR cholangiography with IV mangafodipir trisodium (Teslascan) to evaluate bile duct leaks after cholecystectomy: a prospective study of 11 patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2002;179(2):409–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bachmann A, et al. Chyloretroperitoneum with secondary chylothorax after retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy. Urology. 2005;66(4):881.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Negoro H, Oka H, Kawakita M. Two cases of chyloretroperitoneum following retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy. Int J Urol. 2006;13(4):487–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Upadhyaya CD, Park P, La Marca F. Chyloretroperitoneum following anterior spinal deformity correction. Case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 2007;7(5):562–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nagai H, et al. Chylous leakage after circumferential thoracolumbar fusion for correction of kyphosis resulting from fracture. Report of three cases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1997;22(23):2766–9.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Maurer CA, et al. Blunt abdominal trauma causing chyloretroperitoneum. J Trauma. 1997;43(4):696–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Miller FH, et al. CT diagnosis of chyluria after partial nephrectomy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188(1):W25–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    DeHart MM, et al. Management of retroperitoneal chylous leakage. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994;19(6):716–8.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ishikawa K, et al. Classification of acute pancreatitis based on retroperitoneal extension: application of the concept of interfascial planes. Eur J Radiol. 2006;60(3):445–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gazelle GS, Mueller PR. Abdominal abscess. Imaging and intervention. Radiol Clin North Am. 1994;32(5):913–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Noone TC, et al. Intraperitoneal abscesses: diagnostic accuracy of and appearances at MR imaging. Radiology. 1998;208(2):525–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Coelho RF, et al. Renal and perinephric abscesses: analysis of 65 consecutive cases. World J Surg. 2007;31(2):431–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sacks D, et al. Renal and related retroperitoneal abscesses: percutaneous drainage. Radiology. 1988;167(2):447–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mastromatteo JF, et al. Communications of the pelvic extraperitoneal spaces and their relation to the abdominal extraperitoneal spaces: helical CT cadaver study with pelvic extraperitoneal injections. Radiology. 1997;202(2):523–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Saokar A, et al. Transvaginal drainage of pelvic fluid collections: results, expectations, and experience. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2008;191(5):1352–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Moyle PL, et al. Nonovarian cystic lesions of the pelvis. Radiographics. 2010;30(4):921–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Anderson CM, et al. Pneumoretroperitoneum in two patients with Clostridium perfringens necrotizing pancreatitis. Am Surg. 2004;70(3):268–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Petros JG, Thanikachalam M, Lopez MJ. Retroperitoneal and abdominal wall emphysema after transanal excision of a rectal carcinoma. Am Surg. 1996;62(9):759–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Joseph RC, et al. Genitourinary tract gas: imaging evaluation. Radiographics. 1996;16(2):295–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Yagan N, Auh YH, Fisher A. Extension of air into the right perirenal space after duodenal perforation: CT findings. Radiology. 2009;250(3):740–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rajiah P, et al. Imaging of uncommon retroperitoneal masses. Radiographics. 2011;31(4):949–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Amis Jr ES. Retroperitoneal fibrosis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1991;157(2):321–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gilkeson GS, Allen NB. Retroperitoneal fibrosis. A true connective tissue disease. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1996;22(1):23–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Baker LR, et al. Idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis. A retrospective analysis of 60 cases. Br J Urol. 1987;60(6):497–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Breems DA, Haye H, van der Meulen J. The role of advanced atherosclerosis in idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis. Analysis of nine cases. Neth J Med. 2000;56(2):38–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kottra JJ, Dunnick NR. Retroperitoneal fibrosis. Radiol Clin North Am. 1996;34(6):1259–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Vaglio A, et al. Retroperitoneal fibrosis: evolving concepts. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2007;33(4):803–17, vi–vii.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Arrive L, et al. Malignant versus nonmalignant retroperitoneal fibrosis: differentiation with MR imaging. Radiology. 1989;172(1):139–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Poitras JM, Dennis GJ. Clinical images: diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal fibrosis (Ormond’s disease). Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43(4):943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Geoghegan T, et al. Imaging and intervention of retroperitoneal fibrosis. Australas Radiol. 2007;51(1):26–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Elsayes KM, et al. Retroperitoneal masses: magnetic resonance imaging findings with pathologic correlation. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2007;36(3):97–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ozgen A, Cila A. Renal involvement in multifocal fibrosclerosis: CT and MRI. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1999;23(6):937–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kubota K, et al. Differential diagnosis of idiopathic fibrosis from malignant lymphadenopathy with PET and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose. Clin Nucl Med. 1992;17(5):361–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Salvarani C, et al. Positron emission tomography (PET): evaluation of chronic periaortitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;53(2):298–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jansen I, et al. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography (FDG-PET) for monitoring disease activity and treatment response in idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis. Eur J Intern Med. 2010;21((3):p. 216–21.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Einstein DM, et al. Abdominal lymphadenopathy: spectrum of CT findings. Radiographics. 1991;11(3):457–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Deutch SJ, Sandler MA, Alpern MB. Abdominal lymphadenopathy in benign diseases: CT detection. Radiology. 1987;163(2):335–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Luciani A, et al. Lymph node imaging: basic principles. Eur J Radiol. 2006;58(3):338–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Grubnic S, et al. MR evaluation of normal retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes. Clin Radiol. 2002;57(3):193–200; discussion 201–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Dorfman RE, et al. Upper abdominal lymph nodes: criteria for normal size determined with CT. Radiology. 1991;180(2):319–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Magnusson A. Size of normal retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Acta Radiol Diagn (Stockh). 1983;24(4):315–8.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lee JK, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal and pelvic lymphadenopathy. Radiology. 1984;153(1):181–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Bellin MF, Lebleu L, Meric JB. Evaluation of retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph node metastases with MRI and MR lymphangiography. Abdom Imaging. 2003;28(2):155–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Harisinghani MG, et al. Noninvasive detection of clinically occult lymph-node metastases in prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(25):2491–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Alavi A, et al. Positron emission tomography imaging in nonmalignant thoracic disorders. Semin Nucl Med. 2002;32(4):293–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Alavi A, et al. PET: a revolution in medical imaging. Radiol Clin North Am. 2004;42(6):983–1001, vii.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Neville A, Herts BR. CT characteristics of primary retroperitoneal neoplasms. Crit Rev Comput Tomogr. 2004;45(4):247–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Brepoels L, Stroobants S, Verhoef G. PET and PET/CT for response evaluation in lymphoma: current practice and developments. Leuk Lymphoma. 2007;48(2):270–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Jhanwar YS, Straus DJ. The role of PET in lymphoma. J Nucl Med. 2006;47(8):1326–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kumar R, et al. Utility of fluorodeoxyglucose-PET imaging in the management of patients with Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Radiol Clin North Am. 2004;42(6):1083–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lewis JJ, et al. Retroperitoneal soft-tissue sarcoma: analysis of 500 patients treated and followed at a single institution. Ann Surg. 1998;228(3):355–65.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Bautista N, Su W, O’Connell TX. Retroperitoneal soft-tissue sarcomas: prognosis and treatment of primary and recurrent disease. Am Surg. 2000;66(9):832–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Gutierrez JC, et al. Outcomes for soft-tissue sarcoma in 8249 cases from a large state cancer registry. J Surg Res. 2007;141(1):105–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hartman DS, et al. From the archives of the AFIP. Leiomyosarcoma of the retroperitoneum and inferior vena cava: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 1992;12(6):1203–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    McGinn CJ. The role of radiation therapy in resectable retroperitoneal sarcomas. Surg Oncol. 2000;9(2):61–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Nishino M, et al. Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms: CT and MR imaging findings with anatomic and pathologic diagnostic clues. Radiographics. 2003;23(1):45–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Barker CD, Brown JJ. MR imaging of the retroperitoneum. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 1995;7(2):102–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Myhre-Jensen O. A consecutive 7-year series of 1331 benign soft tissue tumours. Clinicopathologic data. Comparison with sarcomas. Acta Orthop Scand. 1981;52(3):287–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Chen KT, Felix EL, Flam MS. Extraadrenal myelolipoma. Am J Clin Pathol. 1982;78(3):386–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Helenon O, et al. Unusual fat-containing tumors of the kidney: a diagnostic dilemma. Radiographics. 1997;17(1):129–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Craig WD, et al. Fat-containing lesions of the retroperitoneum: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2009;29(1):261–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Stoeckle E, et al. Prognostic factors in retroperitoneal sarcoma: a multivariate analysis of a series of 165 patients of the French Cancer Center Federation Sarcoma Group. Cancer. 2001;92(2):359–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Pereira JM, et al. CT and MR imaging of extrahepatic fatty masses of the abdomen and pelvis: techniques, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and pitfalls. Radiographics. 2005;25(1):69–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Song T, et al. Retroperitoneal liposarcoma: MR characteristics and pathological correlative analysis. Abdom Imaging. 2007;32(5):668–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Weiss SW, Rao VK. Well-differentiated liposarcoma (atypical lipoma) of deep soft tissue of the extremities, retroperitoneum, and miscellaneous sites. A follow-up study of 92 cases with analysis of the incidence of “dedifferentiation”. Am J Surg Pathol. 1992;16(11):1051–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Kim T, et al. CT and MR imaging of abdominal liposarcoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;166(4):829–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Francis IR, et al. Retroperitoneal sarcomas. Cancer Imaging. 2005;5:89–94.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Arkun R, et al. Liposarcoma of soft tissue: MRI findings with pathologic correlation. Skeletal Radiol. 1997;26(3):167–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Ohguri T, et al. Differential diagnosis of benign peripheral lipoma from well-differentiated liposarcoma on MR imaging: is comparison of margins and internal characteristics useful? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2003;180(6):1689–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Sung MS, et al. Myxoid liposarcoma: appearance at MR imaging with histologic correlation. Radiographics. 2000;20(4):1007–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Cuevas C, et al. Imaging primary and secondary tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava: multi-detector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Curr Probl Diagn Radiol. 2006;35(3):90–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ganeshalingam S, et al. Leiomyosarcomas of the inferior vena cava: diagnostic features on cross-sectional imaging. Clin Radiol. 2011;66(1):50–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Hines OJ, et al. Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: prognosis and comparison with leiomyosarcoma of other anatomic sites. Cancer. 1999;85(5):1077–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Rha SE, et al. Neurogenic tumors in the abdomen: tumor types and imaging characteristics. Radiographics. 2003;23(1):29–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kinoshita T, et al. CT features of retroperitoneal neurilemmoma. Eur J Radiol. 1998;27(1):67–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Ogose A, et al. Presacral schwannoma with purely cystic form. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2001;26(16):1817–9.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Hughes MJ, et al. Imaging features of retroperitoneal and pelvic schwannomas. Clin Radiol. 2005;60(8):886–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Reed JC, Hallet KK, Feigin DS. Neural tumors of the thorax: subject review from the AFIP. Radiology. 1978;126(1):9–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Tsai CJ. Case report: unusual ultrasonographic appearance of a solitary retroperitoneal neurofibroma. Br J Radiol. 1994;67(794):210–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Sakai F, et al. Intrathoracic neurogenic tumors: MR-pathologic correlation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1992;159(2):279–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Levine E, Huntrakoon M, Wetzel LH. Malignant nerve-sheath neoplasms in neurofibromatosis: distinction from benign tumors by using imaging techniques. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987;149(5):1059–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Leslie MD, Cheung KY. Malignant transformation of neurofibromas at multiple sites in a case of neurofibromatosis. Postgrad Med J. 1987;63(736):131–3.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Cohen LM, Schwartz AM, Rockoff SD. Benign schwannomas: pathologic basis for CT inhomogeneities. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1986;147(1):141–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Ichikawa T, et al. Retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma extending across the midline: MR features. Clin Imaging. 1993;17(1):19–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Radin R, et al. Adrenal and extra-adrenal retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma: imaging findings in 13 adults. Radiology. 1997;202(3):703–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Otal P, et al. Imaging of retroperitoneal ganglioneuroma. Eur Radiol. 2001;11(6):940–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lonergan GJ, et al. Neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2002;22(4):911–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Wilson LM, Draper GJ. Neuroblastoma, its natural history and prognosis: a study of 487 cases. Br Med J. 1974;3(5926):301–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Bousvaros A, Kirks DR, Grossman H. Imaging of neuroblastoma: an overview. Pediatr Radiol. 1986;16(2):89–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Elsayes KM, et al. MRI of adrenal and extraadrenal pheochromocytoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184(3):860–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Clarke MR, et al. Prognostic markers in pheochromocytoma. Hum Pathol. 1998;29(5):522–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hayes WS, et al. Extraadrenal retroperitoneal paraganglioma: clinical, pathologic, and CT findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1990;155(6):1247–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lenders JW, et al. Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: which test is best? JAMA. 2002;287(11):1427–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Weiss Jr SWG. Enzinger and Weiss’s soft tissue tumours. St. Louis: Mosby; 2001.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Erickson D, Kudva YC, Ebersold MJ, et al. Benign paragangliomas: clinical presentation and treatment outcomes in 236 patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(11):5210–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Belden CJ, Powers C, Ros PR. MR demonstration of a cystic pheochromocytoma. J Magn Reson Imaging. 1995;5(6):778–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Gulla N, et al. A case of “silent” pheochromocytoma presenting as spontaneous retroperitoneal hematoma. Ann Ital Chir. 2000;71(6):735–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Tanaka K, et al. Spontaneous rupture of adrenal pheochromocytoma: a case report. J Urol. 1994;151(1):120–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Glodny B, Winde G, Herwig R, et al. Clinical differences between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas. Endocr J. 2001;48:151–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    O’Riordain DS, et al. Clinical spectrum and outcome of functional extraadrenal paraganglioma. World J Surg. 1996;20(7):916–21; discussion 922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Hruby G, et al. Malignant retroperitoneal paraganglioma: case report and review of treatment options. Australas Radiol. 2000;44(4):478–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Pommier RF, et al. Comparison of adrenal and extraadrenal pheochromocytomas. Surgery. 1993;114(6):1160–5; discussion 1165–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Lee KY, et al. Extraadrenal paragangliomas of the body: imaging features. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;187(2):492–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Mukherjee JJ, et al. Pheochromocytoma: effect of nonionic contrast medium in CT on circulating catecholamine levels. Radiology. 1997;202(1):227–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Bessell-Browne R, O’Malley ME. CT of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: risk of adverse events with i.v. administration of nonionic contrast material. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007;188(4):970–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    van Gils AP, et al. MR imaging and MIBG scintigraphy of pheochromocytomas and extraadrenal functioning paragangliomas. Radiographics. 1991;11(1):37–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Quint LE, et al. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: comparison of MR imaging with CT and I-131 MIBG scintigraphy. Radiology. 1987;165(1):89–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Francis IR, Korobkin M. Pheochromocytoma. Radiol Clin North Am. 1996;34(6):1101–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Choyke PL, Hayes WS, Sesterhenn IA. Primary extragonadal germ cell tumors of the retroperitoneum: differentiation of primary and secondary tumors. Radiographics. 1993;13(6):1365–75; quiz 1377–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    McKenney JK, Heerema-McKenney A, Rouse RV. Extragonadal germ cell tumors: a review with emphasis on pathologic features, clinical prognostic variables, and differential diagnostic considerations. Adv Anat Pathol. 2007;14(2):69–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Ueno T, et al. Spectrum of germ cell tumors: from head to toe. Radiographics. 2004;24(2):387–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Keitoku M, et al. Extraovarian sex cord-stromal tumor: case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1997;16(2):180–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Trabelsi A, et al. Primary mesenteric sertoli-leydig cell tumor: a case report and review of the literature. J Oncol. 2008;2008:619637.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Friedman AC, et al. Computed tomography of abdominal fatty masses. Radiology. 1981;139(2):415–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Gass MA, et al. Lymphatic changes in retroperitoneal lipomatosis. J Comput Tomogr. 1983;7(2):229–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Papanicolaou N, Yoder IC, Lee MJ. Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms: how close can we come in making the correct diagnosis. Urol Radiol. 1992;14(3):221–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Tong RS, et al. Pelvic lipomatosis associated with proliferative cystitis occurring in two brothers. Urology. 2002;59(4):602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Mesurolle B, et al. Retroperitoneal extramedullary hematopoiesis: sonographic, CT, and MR imaging appearance. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167(5):1139–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Scott Jr WW, Fishman EK. Extramedullary hematopoiesis mimicking the appearance of carcinomatosis or peritoneal mesothelioma: computed tomography demonstration. Gastrointest Radiol. 1990;15(1):82–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Tsitouridis J, et al. Extramedullary paraspinal hematopoiesis in thalassemia: CT and MRI evaluation. Eur J Radiol. 1999;30(1):33–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Vlahos L, et al. Retrocrural masses of extramedullary hemopoiesis in beta-thalassemia. Magn Reson Imaging. 1993;11(8):1227–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Yamato M, Fuhrman CR. Computed tomography of fatty replacement in extramedullary hematopoiesis. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1987;11(3):541–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Long Jr JA, Doppman JL, Nienhuis AW. Computed tomographic studies of thoracic extramedullary hematopoiesis. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1980;4(1):67–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Stoupis C, et al. Bubbles in the belly: imaging of cystic mesenteric or omental masses. Radiographics. 1994;14(4):729–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    de Perrot M, et al. Mesenteric cysts. Toward less confusion? Dig Surg. 2000;17(4):323–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Ros PR, et al. Mesenteric and omental cysts: histologic classification with imaging correlation. Radiology. 1987;164(2):327–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Davidson AJ, Hartman DS. Lymphangioma of the retroperitoneum: CT and sonographic characteristic. Radiology. 1990;175(2):507–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Konen O, et al. Childhood abdominal cystic lymphangioma. Pediatr Radiol. 2002;32(2):88–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Munechika H, et al. Computed tomography of retroperitoneal cystic lymphangiomas. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1987;11(1):116–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Azais O, et al. Pelvic cystic lymphangioma. Apropos of a case in an adult. J Radiol. 1989;70(3):209–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Shankar KR, et al. Cystic retroperitoneal lymphangioma: treatment by image-guided percutaneous catheter drainage and sclerotherapy. Eur Radiol. 2001;11(6):1021–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Pennell TC, Gusdon Jr JP. Retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;160(5 Pt 1):1229–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Chen JS, et al. Laparoscopic resection of a primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma: report of a case. Surg Today. 1998;28(3):343–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Green JM, et al. Retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a man: case report and review of the literature. Urol Oncol. 2007;25(1):53–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Rothacker D, et al. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenomas with gastric epithelial differentiation. Pathol Res Pract. 1993;189(10):1195–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Thamboo TP, et al. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a male patient. J Clin Pathol. 2006;59(6):655–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Tjalma WA, Vaneerdeweg W. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinomas are a distinct entity. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2008;18(1):184–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Isse K, et al. Retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenoma: report of two cases and review of the literature. Pathol Int. 2004;54(2):132–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Seki H, et al. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma: report of a case. Radiat Med. 1990;8(5):164–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Tenti P, et al. Primary mucinous cystoadenocarcinoma of the retroperitoneum: two cases. Gynecol Oncol. 1994;55(2):308–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Lee SA, et al. Primary retroperitoneal mucinous cystadenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Korean J Intern Med. 2007;22(4):287–91.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Kaku M, et al. A primary retroperitoneal serous cystadenocarcinoma with clinically aggressive behavior. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2004;270(4):302–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Caruncho M, Pombo F, Arnal-Monreal F. Primary retroperitoneal serous cystadenocarcinoma of ‘ovarian-type’: US and CT findings. Eur J Radiol. 1993;17(2):115–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Kurosaki Y, Kuramoto K. Case report: serous cystadenocarcinoma of the retroperitoneum: CT and sonographic appearance. Clin Radiol. 1998;53(12):916–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Fujiwara K, et al. Primary serous adenocarcinoma of the retroperitoneum with a response to platinum-based chemotherapy: a case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 1999;9(2):170–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    O’Neil JD, et al. Cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum. Radiology. 1989;170(2):333–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Li YP, et al. Cystic mesothelioma of the retroperitoneum. J Clin Ultrasound. 1992;20(1):65–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Katsube Y, Mukai K, Silverberg SG. Cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum: a report of five cases and review of the literature. Cancer. 1982;50(8):1615–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Ross MJ, Welch WR, Scully RE. Multilocular peritoneal inclusion cysts (so-called cystic mesotheliomas). Cancer. 1989;64(6):1336–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Weiss SW, Tavassoli FA. Multicystic mesothelioma. An analysis of pathologic findings and biologic behavior in 37 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1988;12(10):737–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Yang DH, Goo HW. Generalized lymphangiomatosis: radiologic findings in three pediatric patients. Korean J Radiol. 2006;7(4):287–91.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Lee J, et al. Mullerian cysts of the mesentery and retroperitoneum: a case report and literature review. Pathol Int. 1998;48(11):902–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Steinberg L, Rothman D, Drey NW. Mullerian cyst of the retroperitoneum. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1970;107(6):963–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Yang DM, et al. Presacral epidermoid cyst: imaging findings with histopathologic correlation. Abdom Imaging. 2001;26(1):79–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Ueda K, et al. Presacral epidermoid cyst: report of a case. Surg Today. 1998;28(6):665–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Jao SW, et al. Retrorectal tumors. Mayo Clinic experience, 1960– 1979. Dis Colon Rectum. 1985;28(9):644–52.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Dahan H, et al. Retrorectal developmental cysts in adults: clinical and radiologic-histopathologic review, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Radiographics. 2001;21(3):575–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Johnson AR, Ros PR, Hjermstad BM. Tailgut cyst: diagnosis with CT and sonography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1986;147(6):1309–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Hjermstad BM, Helwig EB. Tailgut cysts. Report of 53 cases. Am J Clin Pathol. 1988;89(2):139–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Killingsworth C, Gadacz TR. Tailgut cyst (retrorectal cystic hamartoma): report of a case and review of the literature. Am Surg. 2005;71(8):666–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Prasad AR, et al. Retrorectal cystic hamartoma: report of 5 cases with malignancy arising in 2. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2000;124(5):725–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Marco V, et al. Retrorectal cyst-hamartomas. Report of two cases with adenocarcinoma developing in one. Am J Surg Pathol. 1982;6(8):707–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Lim KE, Hsu WC, Wang CR. Tailgut cyst with malignancy: MR imaging findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998;170(6):1488–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Mathieu A, et al. Tailgut cyst associated with a carcinoid tumor: case report and review of the literature. Histol Histopathol. 2005;20(4):1065–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Moulopoulos LA, et al. MR imaging of complex tail-gut cysts. Clin Radiol. 1999;54(2):118–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Mourra N, et al. Presacral neuroendocrine carcinoma developed in a tailgut cyst: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum. 2003;46(3):411–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Kim MJ, et al. Tailgut cyst: multilocular cystic appearance on MRI. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1997;21(5):731–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Liessi G, et al. Tailgut cysts: CT and MR findings. Abdom Imaging. 1995;20(3):256–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Yang DM, et al. Tailgut cyst: MRI evaluation. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184(5):1519–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Murakami R, et al. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: CT and MR imaging. Abdom Imaging. 2000;25(4):444–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Buckley JA, et al. Bronchogenic cyst appearing as a retroperitoneal mass. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1998;171(2):527–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Kim EY, Lee WJ, Jang KT. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst mimicking a pancreatic cystic tumour. Clin Radiol. 2007;62(5):491–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    McAdams HP, et al. Bronchogenic cyst: imaging features with clinical and histopathologic correlation. Radiology. 2000;217(2):441–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Matsuoka Y, et al. Pseudomyxoma retroperitonei. Eur Radiol. 1999;9(3):457–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Shelton MW, Morian JP, Radford DM. Pseudomyxoma retroperitonei associated with appendiceal cystadenoma. Am Surg. 1994;60(12):958–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Solkar MH, et al. Pseudomyxoma extraperitonei occurring 35 years after appendicectomy: a case report and review of literature. World J Surg Oncol. 2004;2:19.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Mor Y, et al. Case report: pseudomyxoma extraperitonei: an unusual presentation mimicking a hugh hydronephrotic kidney. Clin Radiol. 1996;51(3):221–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Hinson FL, Ambrose NS. Pseudomyxoma peritonei. Br J Surg. 1998;85(10):1332–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Sugarbaker PH, et al. Pseudomyxoma peritonei syndrome. Adv Surg. 1996;30:233–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Moran CG, Morgan RH. Pseudomyxoma extraperitonei. J R Soc Med. 1988;81(11):668–9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Deans GT, Spence RA. Neoplastic lesions of the appendix. Br J Surg. 1995;82(3):299–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Balthazar EJ, Freeny PC, van Sonnenberg E. Imaging and intervention in acute pancreatitis. Radiology. 1994;193(2):297–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Oray-Schrom P, et al. Giant nonpancreatic pseudocyst causing acute anuria. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2002;34(2):160–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Pastore M, et al. Late aortic lymphocele and residual ovary syndrome after gynecological surgery. World J Surg Oncol. 2007;5:146.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Petru E, et al. Pelvic and paraaortic lymphocysts after radical surgery because of cervical and ovarian cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;161(4):937–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    van Sonnenberg E, et al. Lymphoceles: imaging characteristics and percutaneous management. Radiology. 1986;161(3):593–6.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ayman H. Gaballah
    • 1
  • Akram M. Shaaban
    • 2
  • Yehia Mostafa Elguindy
    • 3
  • Khaled M. Elsayes
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyUniversity of Utah Medical CenterSalt Lake CityUSA
  3. 3.Department of Diagnostic RadiologyUniversity of Toledo Medical CenterToledoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Diagnostic RadiologyThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations