Renal Disease

  • Stephen J. D. O’Keefe


The kidney is not only essential for fluid and electrolyte balance but also has a key metabolic role in the excretion of potentially toxic nitrogenous metabolic breakdown products. Consequently, the composition of the nutritional support needs to be adjusted to minimize these effects. The early use of dialysis in acute renal failure is strongly advocated as it allows restoration of normal balanced feeding.


Urea Carbohydrate Creatinine Arginine Methionine 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen J. D. O’Keefe
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology Department of MedicineUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

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