Intravenous Induction Agents

  • Dustin J. Jackson
  • Patrick J. Forte


Induction of anesthesia is most often achieved using intravenous agents. Inhalational agents can also be used for induction, and this technique is commonly used in children. Propofol, thiopental, etomidate, and ketamine are the most commonly used intravenous agents. While opiates and benzodiazepines can also be used for induction, they are more often used for other purposes.


Intravenous anesthetics Propofol Thiopental Etomidate Ketamine 

Further Reading

  1. 1.
    Eames WO, Rooke GA, Wu RS, Bishop MJ. Comparison of the effects of etomidate, propofol, and thiopental on respiratory resistance after tracheal intubation. Anesthesiology. 1996;84:1307–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Kungys G, Kim JB, Jinks SL, Atherley RJ, Antognini JF. Propofol produces immobility via action in the ventral horn of the spinal cord by a GABAergic mechanism. Anesth Analg. 2009;108:1531–7.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Loftus RW, Yeager MP, Clark JA, Brown JR, Abdu WA, Sengupta DK, et al. Intraoperative ketamine reduces perioperative opiate consumption in opiate-dependent patients with chronic back pain undergoing back surgery. Anesthesiology. 2010;113:639–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Murphy A, Campbell DE, Baines D, Mehr S. Allergic reactions to propofol in egg-allergic children. Anesth Analg. 2011;113:140–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rochetta A, Hocquet AF, Dadure C, Boufroukh D, Raux O, Lubrano JF, et al. Avoiding propofol injection pain in children: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Br J Anaesth. 2008;101:390–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Suzuki M, Haraguti S, Sugimoto K, Kikutani T, Shimada Y, Sakamoto A. Low-dose intravenous ketamine potentiates epidural analgesia after thoracotomy. Anesthesiology. 2006;105:111–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tan T, Bhinder R, Carey M, Briggs L. Day-surgery patients anesthetized with propofol have less postoperative pain than those anesthetized with sevoflurane. Anesth Analg. 2010;111:83–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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    Veselis RA, Reinsel RA, Feshchenko VA, Wronski M. The comparative amnestic effects of midazolam, propofol, thiopental, and fentanyl at equisedative concentrations. Anesthesiology. 1997;87:749–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Walker BJ, Neal JM, Mulroy MF, Humsi JA, Bittner RC, McDonald SB. Lidocaine Pretreatment With Tourniquet Versus Lidocaine-Propofol Admixture for Attenuating Propofol Injection Pain. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2011;36:41–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    White PF. Propofol, its role in changing the practice of anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 2008;109:1132–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyMount Nittany Medical CenterState CollegeUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA

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