Skull and Facial Bone Injury Biomechanics

  • Cameron R. Bass
  • Narayan Yoganandan


The skull and facial bones are biomechanically complex. This chapter outlines existing research on the impact and fracture response of the skull and facial bones including the calvarium, maxilla, zygomatic bone, nasal bone, orbit, and mandible. The chapter begins with a discussion of biomechanically relevant anatomy and a discussion of injury severity scales for skull and facial fracture. Discussion includes a detailed description of the available research on impact tolerance of skull and facial bones. These studies show that impact and fracture response is strongly dependent on location, bony impact geometry, and contact area. The chapter concludes with an outline of the available, but limited, information on injury risk functions for skull and facial bones. These risk functions are restricted to skull fracture and maxilla/zygoma injury assessments.


Peak Force Skull Fracture Frontal Bone Facial Fracture Cranial Vault 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This material is the result of work supported with resources and the use of facilities at the Zablocki VA Medical Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin and the Medical College of Wisconsin.Narayan Yoganandan is a part-time employee of the Zablocki VA Medical Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.Any views expressed in this chapter are those of the authors and not necessarily representative of the funding organizations.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical EngineeringDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurosurgeryMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA

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