Advertisement

Civil Aviation Crash Injury Protection

  • Richard L. DeWeese
  • David M. Moorcroft
  • Joseph A. Pellettiere
Chapter

Abstract

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has adopted safety requirements intended to protect aircraft occupants during survivable crash scenarios. These requirements include design specifications, static strength tests and dynamic impact tests of seats and restraint systems using instrumented Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD). Two orientations of impact test are cited: a combined longitudinal/vertical test with the impact vector 60° from horizontal, and a longitudinal test with the impact vector yawed 10° from the centerline of the aircraft. Injury potential is assessed during the dynamic tests by comparing test results to a set of injury criteria. The static and dynamic test requirements vary by aircraft type due to the differences in energy transmitted to the seats. However, the injury criteria evaluated during these tests are very similar for all aircraft types. The criteria cited in the regulations are: the Head Injury Criteria (HIC), lumbar spine compressive load, shoulder strap load, femur compressive load (for passengers of transport aircraft only), a requirement that the seat belt not bear on the abdomen, and that the shoulder belts (if used) bear on the shoulder.

Side facing seats have unique injury risks. Therefore, tests using an ATD that can measure those risks (the ES-2re) are conducted to ensure that side facing seats provide the same level of safety as forward or aft-facing ones. The injury criteria originally developed to evaluate side impacts in autos have been cited in the aviation requirements, and include: HIC, rib lateral deflection, abdomen force, and pubic symphysis force. Because aircraft side-facing seats do not always provide full support for the occupant, additional criteria were developed to limit the risk of injuries caused by excessive excursion of the head, torso and legs. These criteria place limits on upper neck loads, femur twist angle, and torso flail, and prohibit significant contact between occupants of multi-place seats.

As new seat configurations and restraint technologies are introduced, additional criteria may be needed to ensure that these new systems provide the same level of safety as conventional seats and restraints. Advancements in biomechanics and injury mitigation technology have the potential to increase the level of safety for all aircraft occupants.

Keywords

Injury Risk Injury Criterion Federal Aviation Administration Head Injury Criterion Restraint System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    National Transportation Safety Board (2011) Review of U.S. Civil Aviation Accidents, NTSB/ARA-11/01Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    National Transportation Safety Board (2001) Survivability of accidents involving part 121 U.S. Air Carrier Operations, 1983 through 2000, NTSB SR01/01Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    NHTSA Fatality Analysis Reporting System Encyclopedia (2013) FARS Data Tables, Trends, Fatalities and Fatality Rates 1994–2012 - State : USA, Washington, DC. www-fars.nhtsa.dot.govGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Soltis S, Nissley W (1990) The development of dynamic performance standards for civil aircraft seats. Paper presented at the National Institute of Aviation Research, 1990 Aircraft Interiors Conference, Wichita State University, KansasGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Coltman J, Bolukbasi A, Laananen D (1985) Analysis of rotorcraft crash dynamics for development of improved crashworthiness design criteria, DOT/FAA/CT-85/11Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Parts 23.561, 23.785, 25.561, 25.785, 27.561, 27.785, 29.561, 29.785. U.S. GPO, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chandler RF (1993) Development of crash injury protection in civil aviation, Chapter 7. In: Nahum A, Melvin J (eds) Accidental injury, biomechanics and prevention, 1st edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Parts 23.562, 25.562, 27.562, 29.562. U.S. GPO, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 14, Part 121. Improved seats in air Carrier Transport Category Airplanes. U.S. GPO, Washington, DC; Final Rule; Federal Register 70(186):56542 (2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bandak F, Eppinger R (1994) A three-dimensional finite element analysis of the human brain under combined rotational and translational accelerations. Stapp Car Crash J 38, Paper No. 942215Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chandler R (1985) Human injury criteria relative to civil aircraft seat and restraint systems. SAE International, Warrendale, SAE Paper 851847Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kuppa S (2004) Injury criteria for side impact dummies. DOT/National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC; FMVSS-214 NPRM docket: NHTSA-2004-17694Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    (2008) The abbreviated injury scale 2005 – update 2008. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, BarringtonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 49, Part 571.208. U.S. GPO, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Takhounts E, Eppinger R et al (2003) On the development of the SIMon finite element head model. Stapp Car Crash J 47, Paper No. 03S-04Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Iverson G, Gaetz M et al (2004) Cumulative effects of concussion in amateur athletes. Brain Inj 18(5):433–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Eiband A (1959) Human tolerance to rapidly applied accelerations: a summary of the literature. NASA Memorandum 5-19-59E. NASA Lewis Research Center, ClevelandGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Henzel J (1967) The human spinal column and upward ejection acceleration: an appraisal of biodynamic implications. USAF Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories, AMRL-TR-66-233Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stech E, Payne P (1969) Dynamic models of the human body, AMRL-TR-66-157. Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OhioGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brinkley J, Shaffer J (1971) Dynamic simulation techniques for the design of escape systems: current applications and future Air Force requirements. USAF Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories, AMRL-TR-71-29Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gowdy R, Beebe M, Kelly R et al (1999) A lumbar spine modification to the Hybrid III ATD for aircraft seat tests. SAE International, Warrendale, SAE Paper 1999-01-1609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barth T, Balcena P (2010) Comparison of heart and aortic injuries to the head, neck, and spine injuries in US Army Aircraft accidents from 1983 to 2005. In: Proceedings of the American Helicopter Society forum 66, Phoenix, 10–13 May 2010Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kuppa S, Wang J, Haffner M, Eppinger R (2007) Lower extremity injuries and associated injury criteria. DOT/National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC. NHTSA paper no. 457Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    US Army (1989) US Army crash survival design guide, USAAVSCOM TR 89-D-22D Volume IV, Section 7.3.3Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Marcus JH, Morgan RM, Eppinger RH, Kallieris D, Mattern R, Schmidt G (1983) Human response to and injury from lateral impact, SAE Paper No. 83163424 Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    FAA (2012) FAA policy statement, PS-ANM-25-03-R1, Technical criteria for approving side-facing seats. DOT/Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    DeWeese R, Moorcroft D, Abramowitz A, Pellettiere J (2012) Civil aircraft side-facing seat research summary. DOT/Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC. FAA report no. DOT/FAA/AM-12/18Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Philippens M, Forbes P, Wismans J, DeWeese R, Moorcroft D (2011) Neck injury criteria for side-facing aircraft seats. DOT/Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC. FAA report no. DOT/FAA/AR-09/41Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    DeWeese R, Moorcroft D, Green T, Philippens M (2007) Assessment of injury potential in aircraft side-facing seats using the ES-2 anthropomorphic test dummy. DOT/Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC. FAA report no. DOT/FAA/AM-07/13Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yoganandan N, Pintar F, Humm J et al (2013) Neck injury criteria for side-facing aircraft seats – phase II. DOT/Federal Aviation Administration, Washington, DC. FAA report no. DOT/FAA/TC-12/44Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Henry Dreyfuss Associates (2002) The measure of man and woman. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rosen J, Arcan M (2003) Modeling the human body/seat system in a vibration environment. J Biomech Eng 125:223–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    FAA (2006) FAA advisory circular 25.562-1B, dynamic evaluation of seat restraint systems and occupant protection on transport airplanes. U.S. GPO, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pintar F, Yoganandan N, Stemper D et al (2007) Comparison of PMHS, WorldSID, and THOR-NT responses in simulated far side impact. Stapp Car Crash J 51:313–360, Paper No. 2007-22-0014Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Trimble E (1990) Report on the accident to Boeing 737-400 G-OBME near Kegworth, Leicestershire on 8 January 1989. Aircraft accident report 4/90. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yoganandan N, Pintar F et al (2005) Biomechanical aspects of blunt and penetrating head injuries, IUTAM Paper 011405Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Grierson A, Jones L (2001) Recommendations for injury prevention in transport aviation accidents. SAE International, Warrendale, SAE Paper 2001-01-2658CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard L. DeWeese
    • 1
  • David M. Moorcroft
    • 1
  • Joseph A. Pellettiere
    • 2
  1. 1.Civil Aerospace Medical InstituteFederal Aviation AdministrationOklahoma CityUSA
  2. 2.Aviation SafetyFederal Aviation AdministrationWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations