Advertisement

Malignant Renal Tumors

  • Bahig M. Shehata
  • Mina M. Naguib
  • Jenny Lin
  • Geetika Khanna
Chapter

Abstract

The majority of pediatric renal tumors are Wilms’ tumors. Of particular concern are those renal neoplasms carrying malignant potential. These entities are given particular attention in this chapter. Universally, partial and radical nephrectomies are used to treat both benign and malignant neoplasms. Chemotherapies have improved the prognosis of many malignant renal tumors, such as Wilms, but others, especially those carrying INI-1 mutations, remain difficult to treat and have high mortality rates. More molecular and genetic research is needed to fully understand and successfully treat this subset of childhood tumor.

Keywords

Wilms’ tumor Pediatric Neoplasms Kidney Renal Nephroblastomatosis Nephrogenic rests Cystic nephroma Congenital mesoblastic nephroma Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney Rhabdoid tumor Renal cell carcinomas Renal medullary carcinoma 

References

  1. 1.
    Ko EY, Ritchey ML. Current management of Wilms’ tumor in children. J Pediatr Urol. 2009;5(1):56–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Murphy WM, Grignon DJ, Perlman EJ. Kidney tumors in children. In: Silverberg SG, Sobin LH, editors. Tumors of the kidney, bladder, and related urinary structures. Washington, DC: American Registry of Pathology; 2004. p. 1–99.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shen SS, et al. Recently described and emphasized entities of renal neoplasms. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131(8):1234–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lall A, et al. Wilms’ tumor with intracaval thrombus in the UK Children’s Cancer Study Group UKW3 trial. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41(2):382–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Servaes S, et al. Comparison of diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for abdominal staging of pediatric renal tumors: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Pediatr Radiol. 2014 Aug 19. [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brisse HJ, et al. Imaging in unilateral Wilms tumour. Pediatr Radiol. 2008;38(1):18–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Charles AK, Vujanić GM, Berry PJ. Renal tumours of childhood. Histopathology. 1998;32(4):293–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sebire NJ, Vujanic GM. Paediatric renal tumours: recent developments, new entities and pathological features. Histopathology. 2009;54(5):516–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chu A, et al. Wilms’ tumour: a systematic review of risk factors and meta-analysis. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2010;24(5):449–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nakamura L, Ritchey M. Current management of wilms’ tumor. Curr Urol Rep. 2010;11(1):58–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Davidoff AM. Wilms’ tumor. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2009;21(3):357–64.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Keaney CM, Springate JE. Cancer and the kidney. Adolesc Med Clin. 2005;16(1):121–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lowe LH, et al. Pediatric renal masses: Wilms tumor and beyond. Radiographics. 2000;20(6):1585–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ritchey ML, et al. Renal vein involvement with nephroblastoma: a report of the National Wilms’ Tumor Study-3. Eur Urol. 1990;17(2):139–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Khanna G, et al. Evaluation of diagnostic performance of CT for detection of tumor thrombus in children with Wilms tumor: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012;58(4):551–5.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khanna G, et al. Detection of preoperative Wilms tumor rupture with CT: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Radiology. 2013;266(2):610–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ehrlich PF. Bilateral Wilms’ tumor: the need to improve outcomes. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2009;9(7):963–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rohrschneider WK, et al. US, CT and MR imaging characteristics of nephroblastomatosis. Pediatr Radiol. 1998;28(6):435–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Choueiri TK, et al. BRAF mutations in metanephric adenoma of the kidney. Eur Urol. 2012;62(5):917–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schmelz HU, et al. Metanephric adenoma of the kidney: case report and review of the literature. Int Urol Nephrol. 2005;37(2):213–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Davis Jr CJ, et al. Metanephric adenoma. Clinicopathological study of fifty patients. Am J Surg Pathol. 1995;19(10):1101–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Arroyo MR, et al. The spectrum of metanephric adenofibroma and related lesions: clinicopathologic study of 25 cases from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group Pathology Center. Am J Surg Pathol. 2001;25(4):433–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hennigar RA, Beckwith JB. Nephrogenic adenofibroma. A novel kidney tumor of young people. Am J Surg Pathol. 1992;16(4):325–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hoglund HH, et al. Ossifying renal tumor of infancy (ORTI)—a rare diagnosis. Klin Padiatr. 2011;223(3):178–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Argani P, Beckwith JB. Metanephric stromal tumor: report of 31 cases of a distinctive pediatric renal neoplasm. Am J Surg Pathol. 2000;24(7):917–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kacar A, et al. Metanephric stromal tumor: a challenging diagnostic entity in children. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46(12):e7–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grundy P, et al. Clinicopathologic correlates of loss of heterozygosity in Wilm’s tumor: a preliminary analysis. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1996;27(5):429–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Argani P, Collins MH. Anaplastic nephrogenic rest. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30(10):1339–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Beckwith JB. Nephrogenic rests and the pathogenesis of Wilms tumor: developmental and clinical considerations. Am J Med Genet. 1998;79(4):268–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lonergan GJ, et al. Nephrogenic rests, nephroblastomatosis, and associated lesions of the kidney. Radiographics. 1998;18(4):947–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Beckwith JB. Precursor lesions of Wilms tumor: clinical and biological implications. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1993;21(3):158–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Beckwith JB, Kiviat NB, Bonadio JF. Nephrogenic rests, nephroblastomatosis, and the pathogenesis of Wilms’ tumor. Pediatr Pathol. 1990;10(1–2):1–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fukuzawa R, Reeve AE. Molecular pathology and epidemiology of nephrogenic rests and Wilms tumors. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2007;29(9):589–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Charles AK, Brown KW, Berry PJ. Microdissecting the genetic events in nephrogenic rests and Wilms’ tumor development. Am J Pathol. 1998;153(3):991–1000.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hennigar RA, O’Shea PA, Grattan-Smith JD. Clinicopathologic features of nephrogenic rests and nephroblastomatosis. Adv Anat Pathol. 2001;8(5):276–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Park S, et al. Inactivation of WT1 in nephrogenic rests, genetic precursors to Wilms’ tumour. Nat Genet. 1993;5(4):363–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Steenman M, et al. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis of Wilms tumors. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1997;77(3–4):296–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ritchey ML, et al. Fate of bilateral renal lesions missed on preoperative imaging: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. J Urol. 2005;174(4 Pt 2):1519–21. discussion 1521.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gylys-Morin V, et al. Wilms tumor and nephroblastomatosis: imaging characteristics at gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 1993;188(2):517–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hausegger KA, et al. Can MR contribute to the diagnosis of nephroblastomatosis? A report of one case. Pediatr Radiol. 1991;21(7):533–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Perlman EJ, et al. Hyperplastic perilobar nephroblastomatosis: long-term survival of 52 patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2006;46(2):203–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Joshi VV, Beckwith JB. Multilocular cyst of the kidney (cystic nephroma) and cystic, partially differentiated nephroblastoma. Terminology and criteria for diagnosis. Cancer. 1989;64(2):466–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Joshi VV, et al. Cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma: a clinicopathologic entity in the spectrum of infantile renal neoplasia. Cancer. 1977;40(2):789–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Truong LD, et al. Renal cystic neoplasms and renal neoplasms associated with cystic renal diseases: pathogenetic and molecular links. Adv Anat Pathol. 2003;10(3):135–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Blakely ML, et al. Outcome of children with cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma treated with or without chemotherapy. J Pediatr Surg. 2003;38(6):897–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Agrons GA, et al. Multilocular cystic renal tumor in children: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 1995;15(3):653–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bahubeshi A, et al. Germline DICER1 mutations and familial cystic nephroma. J Med Genet. 2010;47(12):863–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bayindir P, et al. Cellular mesoblastic nephroma (infantile renal fibrosarcoma): institutional review of the clinical, diagnostic imaging, and pathologic features of a distinctive neoplasm of infancy. Pediatr Radiol. 2009;39(10):1066–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    England RJ, et al. Mesoblastic nephroma: a report of the United Kingdom children’s cancer and leukaemia group (CCLG). Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011;56(5):744–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Furtwaengler R, et al. Mesoblastic nephroma—a report from the Gesellschaft fur Padiatrische Onkologie und Hamatologie (GPOH). Cancer. 2006;106(10):2275–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gupta R, et al. Cellular mesoblastic nephroma in an infant: report of the cytologic diagnosis of a rare paediatric renal tumor. Diagn Cytopathol. 2009;37(5):377–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chaudry G, et al. Imaging of congenital mesoblastic nephroma with pathological correlation. Pediatr Radiol. 2009;39(10):1080–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Irsutti M, et al. Mesoblastic nephroma: prenatal ultrasonographic and MRI features. Pediatr Radiol. 2000;30(3):147–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Portugal R, Barroca H. Clear cell sarcoma, cellular mesoblastic nephroma and metanephric adenoma: cytological features and differential diagnosis with Wilms tumour. Cytopathology. 2008;19(2):80–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rubin BP, et al. Congenital mesoblastic nephroma t(12;15) is associated with ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion: cytogenetic and molecular relationship to congenital (infantile) fibrosarcoma. Am J Pathol. 1998;153(5):1451–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Henno S, et al. Cellular mesoblastic nephroma: morphologic, cytogenetic and molecular links with congenital fibrosarcoma. Pathol Res Pract. 2003;199(1):35–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Steelman C, et al. Unusual presentation of congenital infantile fibrosarcoma in seven infants with molecular-genetic analysis. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2011;30(5):329–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brownlee NA, et al. Recurring translocation (10;17) and deletion (14q) in clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131(3):446–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gooskens SL, et al. Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney: a review. Eur J Cancer. 2012;48(14):2219–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Argani P, et al. Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney: a review of 351 cases from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group Pathology Center. Am J Surg Pathol. 2000;24(1):4–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cutcliffe C, et al. Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney: up-regulation of neural markers with activation of the sonic hedgehog and Akt pathways. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11(22):7986–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Amin MB, et al. Clear cell sarcoma of kidney in an adolescent and in young adults: a report of four cases with ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, and DNA flow cytometric analysis. Am J Surg Pathol. 1999;23(12):1455–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Watts KE, Hansel DE, MacLennan GT. Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. J Urol. 2011;185(1):279–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Glass RB, Davidson AJ, Fernbach SK. Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney: CT, sonographic, and pathologic correlation. Radiology. 1991;180(3):715–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    O’Meara E, et al. Characterization of the chromosomal translocation t(10;17)(q22;p13) in clear cell sarcoma of kidney. J Pathol. 2012;227(1):72–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Schuster AE, et al. Genetic and genetic expression analyses of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. Lab Invest. 2003;83(9):1293–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Desai SR, Upadhyay V. Rhabdoid tumour of the kidney: a diagnostic challenge and a fatal outcome. Pediatr Surg Int. 2000;16(5–6):449–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Weeks DA, et al. Rhabdoid tumor of kidney. A report of 111 cases from the National Wilms’ Tumor Study Pathology Center. Am J Surg Pathol. 1989;13(6):439–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Winger DI, et al. Radiology-Pathology Conference: rhabdoid tumor of the kidney. Clin Imaging. 2006;30(2):132–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Yamamoto M, et al. Treatment of stage IV malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK) with ICE and VDCy: a case report. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006;28(5):286–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Han TI, et al. Rhabdoid tumour of the kidney: imaging findings. Pediatr Radiol. 2001;31(4):233–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sisler CL, Siegel MJ. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney: radiologic features. Radiology. 1989;172(1):211–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Palmer NF, Sutow W. Clinical aspects of the rhabdoid tumor of the kidney: a report of the National Wilms’ Tumor Study Group. Med Pediatr Oncol. 1983;11(4):242–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Nagata T, et al. Molecular genetic alterations and gene expression profile of a malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2005;163(2):130–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lee RS, et al. A remarkably simple genome underlies highly malignant pediatric rhabdoid cancers. J Clin Invest. 2012;122(8):2983–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gadd S, et al. Rhabdoid tumor: gene expression clues to pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. Lab Invest. 2010;90(5):724–38.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Perlman EJ. Pediatric renal cell carcinoma. Surg Pathol Clin. 2010;3(3):641–51.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sausville JE, et al. Pediatric renal cell carcinoma. J Pediatr Urol. 2009;5(4):308–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Soller MJ, et al. Cytogenetic findings in pediatric renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2007;173(1):75–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Spreafico F, et al. Renal cell carcinoma in children and adolescents. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2010;10(12):1967–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Indolfi P, et al. Local lymph node involvement in pediatric renal cell carcinoma: a report from the Italian TREP project. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;51(4):475–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Selle B, et al. Population-based study of renal cell carcinoma in children in Germany, 1980–2005: more frequently localized tumors and underlying disorders compared with adult counterparts. Cancer. 2006;107(12):2906–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Argani P, et al. Primary renal neoplasms with the ASPL-TFE3 gene fusion of alveolar soft part sarcoma: a distinctive tumor entity previously included among renal cell carcinomas of children and adolescents. Am J Pathol. 2001;159(1):179–92.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Argani P, Ladanyi M. Translocation carcinomas of the kidney. Clin Lab Med. 2005;25(2):363–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Argani P, et al. A novel CLTC-TFE3 gene fusion in pediatric renal adenocarcinoma with t(X;17)(p11.2;q23). Oncogene. 2003;22(34):5374–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Schafernak KT, et al. Pediatric renal cell carcinoma as second malignancy: reports of two cases and a review of the literature. Can J Urol. 2007;14(6):3739–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Joshi DD, Banerjee T. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor antibody bevacizumab (avastin) induces regression of renal cell carcinoma in an adolescent resulting in residual tumorectomy. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;50(4):903–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Malouf GG, et al. Targeted agents in metastatic Xp11 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion renal cell carcinoma (RCC): a report from the Juvenile RCC Network. Ann Oncol. 2010;21(9):1834–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pwint TP, et al. An adult Xp11.2 translocation renal carcinoma showing response to treatment with sunitinib. Urol Oncol. 2011;29(6):821–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schultz TD, et al. Papillary renal cell carcinoma: report of a rare entity in childhood with review of the clinical management. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46(6):e31–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Antonelli A, et al. Cytogenetic features, clinical significance and prognostic impact of type 1 and type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010;199(2):128–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Delahunt B, Eble JN. Papillary renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 105 tumors. Mod Pathol. 1997;10(6):537–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Downey RT, et al. CT and MRI appearances and radiologic staging of pediatric renal cell carcinoma. Pediatr Radiol. 2012;42(4):410–7. quiz 513–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Khanna G, et al. Cell carcinoma in children and adolescents: a summary of imaging findings from the Children’s Oncology Group. Pediatr Radiol. 2014;44(Suppl):S136.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Coogan CL, et al. Renal medullary carcinoma in patients with sickle cell trait. Urology. 1998;51(6):1049–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gangireddy V, et al. Response of metastatic renal medullary carcinoma to carboplatinum and Paclitaxel chemotherapy. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2012;10(2):134–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Swartz MA, et al. Renal medullary carcinoma: clinical, pathologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic analysis with pathogenetic implications. Urology. 2002;60(6):1083–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Baig MA, et al. Renal medullary carcinoma. J Natl Med Assoc. 2006;98(7):1171–4.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hakimi AA, et al. Renal medullary carcinoma: the Bronx experience. Urology. 2007;70(5):878–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Walsh AM, et al. Response to radiation in renal medullary carcinoma. Rare Tumors. 2011;3(3):e32.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Assad L, et al. Cytologic features of renal medullary carcinoma. Cancer. 2005;105(1):28–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Avery RA, et al. Renal medullary carcinoma: clinical and therapeutic aspects of a newly described tumor. Cancer. 1996;78(1):128–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Khan A, et al. Renal medullary carcinoma: sonographic, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and angiographic findings. Eur J Radiol. 2000;35(1):1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Davidson AJ, et al. Renal medullary carcinoma associated with sickle cell trait: radiologic findings. Radiology. 1995;195(1):83–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Medeiros LJ, et al. Oncocytoid renal cell carcinoma after neuroblastoma: a report of four cases of a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Am J Surg Pathol. 1999;23(7):772–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lack EE, Cassady JR, Sallan SE. Renal cell carcinoma in childhood and adolescence: a clinical and pathological study of 17 cases. J Urol. 1985;133(5):822–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Dhall D, et al. Pediatric renal cell carcinoma with oncocytoid features occurring in a child after chemotherapy for cardiac leiomyosarcoma. Urology. 2007;70(1):178e13–5.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Katzman PJ, Schwartz JI. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in a child: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2007;10(2):125–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Vera-Badillo FE, Conde E, Duran I. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: a review of an uncommon entity. Int J Urol. 2012;19(10):894–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Amin MB, et al. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: histomorphologic characteristics and evaluation of conventional pathologic prognostic parameters in 145 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32(12):1822–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Przybycin CG, et al. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study of 203 tumors in 200 patients with primary resection at a single institution. Am J Surg Pathol. 2011;35(7):962–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Volpe A, et al. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC): oncological outcomes and prognostic factors in a large multicentre series. BJU Int. 2012;110(1):76–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Bartholow T, Parwani A. Renal primitive neuroectodermal tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2012;136(6):686–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Chu WC, et al. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) of the kidney: a rare renal tumour in adolescents with seemingly characteristic radiological features. Pediatr Radiol. 2008;38(10):1089–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ellinger J, et al. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor: rare, highly aggressive differential diagnosis in urologic malignancies. Urology. 2006;68(2):257–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Gonlusen G, et al. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney: a rare entity. Int Urol Nephrol. 2001;33(3):449–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Jimenez RE, et al. Primary Ewing’s sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2002;26(3):320–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Parham DM, et al. Primary malignant neuroepithelial tumors of the kidney: a clinicopathologic analysis of 146 adult and pediatric cases from the National Wilms’ Tumor Study Group Pathology Center. Am J Surg Pathol. 2001;25(2):133–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    de Alava E, Gerald WL. Molecular biology of the Ewing’s sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor family. J Clin Oncol. 2000;18(1):204–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kim MS, et al. Radiologic findings of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor arising in the retroperitoneum. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186(4):1125–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Raney B, et al. Primary renal sarcomas in the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) experience, 1972–2005: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;51(3):339–43.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Putnam AR, Wallentine JC. Diagnostic pathology. Pediatric neoplasms. 1st ed. Salt Lake City, UT: Amirsys; 2012.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Iacovelli R, et al. Clinical and pathological features of primary renal synovial sarcoma: analysis of 64 cases from 11 years of medical literature. BJU Int. 2012;110(10):1449–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Scarpato KR, et al. Primary renal synovial sarcoma in a 13-year-old boy. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46(9):1849–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Divetia M, et al. Synovial sarcoma of the kidney. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2008;12(5):333–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Argani P, et al. Primary renal synovial sarcoma: molecular and morphologic delineation of an entity previously included among embryonal sarcomas of the kidney. Am J Surg Pathol. 2000;24(8):1087–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Fisher C. Diagnostic pathology. Soft tissue tumors. Salt Lake City, UT: Amirsys; 2011.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Perlmutter AE, et al. Primary synovial sarcoma of the kidney. Int J Urol. 2005;12(8):760–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Zakhary MM, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging features of renal synovial sarcoma: a case report. Cancer Imaging. 2008;8:45–7.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bahig M. Shehata
    • 2
  • Mina M. Naguib
    • 2
  • Jenny Lin
    • 2
  • Geetika Khanna
    • 1
  1. 1.Radiology, St. Louis Children’s HospitalWashington University School of Medicine – MIRSt. LouisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pathology and PediatricsEmory University School of Medicine, Pediatric Pathologist, Children’s Healthcare of AtlantaAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations