Epidemiology of Raynaud’s Phenomenon

Chapter

Abstract

The prevalence of Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP) in most studies of the general population is between 3 and 5 %. Primary RP is reversible vasospasm in peripheral arteries occurring in the absence of an underlying disease and accounts for 80–90 % of cases. Secondary RP develops in association with an underlying disorder and is often characterised by structural vascular abnormalities and irreversible vascular occlusion. The prevalence of primary RP ranges from 2 to 20 % in women and 1–12 % in men depending on geographic location, the population studied, the definition of RP used and the method of case ascertainment.

In women, the onset of RP is more commonly at an early age and is associated with a family history of RP suggesting genetic factors may play a role, as may hormonal and emotional factors. RP secondary to autoimmune disease is also more common in women than in men. In contrast, the prevalence of RP in men increases with increasing age and smoking and is more likely to be secondary to occupational exposures such as vibration or atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease than in women. Low body weight is a risk factor in both sexes. Studies of risk factors have been hindered by poor methodology such as cross-sectional study design.

The prevalence of secondary RP is related to the underlying disease. Progression to secondary RP occurs in 14–37 % of subjects with primary RP. Almost 99 % of patients who progress develop an autoimmune disease, most commonly systemic sclerosis (SSc). Risk factors for progression include positive ANA, elevated ESR, SSc-specific autoantibodies and abnormal nailfold capillaroscopy.

Primary RP follows a relatively benign course with minimal impact on function and quality of life. The greatest impact of secondary RP on morbidity and function arises from complications from digital ulceration and ischemic necrosis, namely pain, infection, gangrene and amputation, with resultant loss of hand function.

Keywords

Arthritis Hepatitis Ischemia Glutathione Migraine 

Abbreviations

ANA

Anti-nuclear antibody

CI

Confidence interval

CTD

Connective tissue disease

DU

Digital ulceration

ESR

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

GP

General practice

HAQ

Health assessment questionnaire

MCTD

Mixed connective tissue disease

ND

Not described

OR

Odds ratio

RA

Rheumatoid arthritis

RP

Raynaud’s phenomenon

RR

Relative risk

SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus

SSc

Systemic sclerosis

UK

United Kingdom

US

United States of America

VCM

Vinyl chloride monomer

VWF

Vibration white finger

References

  1. 1.
    Riera G, Vilardell M, Vaque J, Fonollosa V, Bermejo B. Prevalence of Raynaud’s phenomenon in a healthy Spanish population. J Rheumatol. 1993; 20:66–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rodriguez Garcia JL, Sabin RJ. Raynaud’s phenomenon. Rev Clin Esp. 1989;184:311–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    De Angelis R, Salaffi F, Grassi W. Raynaud’s phenomenon: prevalence in an Italian population sample. Clin Rheumatol. 2006;25(4):506–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Purdie G, Harrison A, Purdie D. Prevalence of Raynaud’s phenomenon in the adult New Zealand population. N Z Med J. 2009;122(1306):55–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Silman A, Holligan S, Brennan P, Maddison P. Prevalence of symptoms of Raynaud’s phenomenon in general practice. BMJ. 1990;301(6752):590–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brand FN, Larson MG, Kannel WB, McGuirk JM. The occurrence of Raynaud’s phenomenon in a general population: the Framingham Study. Vasc Med. 1997;2(4):296–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cakir N, Pamuk ON, Donmez S, Barutcu A, Diril H, Odabas E, et al. Prevalence of Raynaud’s phenomenon in healthy Turkish medical students and hospital personnel. Rheumatol Int. 2008;29(2):185–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Onbasi K, Sahin I, Onbasi O, Ustun Y, Koca D. Raynaud’s phenomenon in a healthy Turkish population. Clin Rheumatol. 2005;24(4):365–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Voulgari PV, Alamanos Y, Papazisi D, Christou K, Papanikolaou C, Drosos AA. Prevalence of Raynaud’s phenomenon in a healthy Greek population. Ann Rheum Dis. 2000;59(3):206–10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Suter LG, Murabito JM, Felson DT, Fraenkel L. The incidence and natural history of Raynaud’s phenomenon in the community. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52(4):1259–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brennan P, Silman A, Black C, Bernstein R, Coppock J, Maddison P, et al. Validity and reliability of three methods used in the diagnosis of Raynaud’s phenomenon. The UK Scleroderma Study Group. Br J Rheumatol. 1993;32(5):357–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Valter I, Maricq HR. Prevalence of Raynaud’s phenomenon in 2 ethnic groups in the general population of Estonia. J Rheumatol. 1998;25(4):697–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Planchon B, Pistorius MA, Beurrier P, De Faucal P. Primary Raynaud’s phenomenon. Age of onset and pathogenesis in a prospective study of 424 patients. Angiology. 1994;45(8):677–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wigley FM. Raynaud’s phenomenon. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:1001–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fraenkel L. Raynaud’s phenomenon: epidemiology and risk factors. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2002;4(2):123–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Keil JE, Maricq HR, Weinrich MC, McGregor AR, Diat F. Demographic, social and clinical correlates of Raynaud phenomenon. Int J Epidemiol. 1991;20:221–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fraenkel L, Zhang Y, Chaisson CE, Maricq HR, Evans SR, Brand F, et al. Different factors influencing the expression of Raynaud’s phenomenon in men and women. Arthritis Rheum. 1999;42(2):306–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Palesch YY, Valter I, Carpentier PH, Maricq HR. Association between cigarette and alcohol consumption and Raynaud’s phenomenon. J Clin Epidemiol. 1999;52(4):321–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maricq HR, Carpentier PH, Weinrich MC, Keil JE, Palesch Y, Biro C, et al. Geographic variation in the prevalence of Raynaud’s phenomenon: a 5 region comparison. J Rheumatol. 1997;24(5):879–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Maricq HR, Carpentier PH, Weinrich MC, Keil JE, Franco A, Drouet P, et al. Geographic variation in the prevalence of Raynaud’s phenomenon: Charleston, SC, USA, vs Tarentaise, Savoie, France. J Rheumatol. 1993;20(1):70–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Purdie GL, Purdie DJ, Harrison AA. Raynaud’s phenomenon in medical laboratory workers who work with solvents. J Rheumatol. 2011;38(9):1940–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Freedman RR, Mayes MD. Familial aggregation of primary Raynaud’s disease. Arthritis Rheum. 1996;39:1189–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Smyth AE, Hughes AE, Bruce IN, Bell AL. A case-control study of candidate vasoactive mediator genes in primary Raynaud’s phenomenon. Rheumatology (Oxford). 1999;38(11):1094–8.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cherkas LF, Williams FM, Carter L, Howell K, Black CM, Spector TD, et al. Heritability of Raynaud's phenomenon and vascular responsiveness to cold: a study of adult female twins. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;57(3):524–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Frech T, Khanna D, Markewitz B, Mineau G, Pimentel R, Sawitzke A. Heritability of vasculopathy, autoimmune disease, and fibrosis in systemic sclerosis: a population-based study. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62(7):2109–16.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fleming JN, Nash RA, Mahoney Jr WM, Schwartz SM. Is scleroderma a vasculopathy? Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2009;11(2):103–10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Susol E, MacGregor AJ, Barrett JH, Wilson H, Black C, Welsh K, et al. A two-stage genome wide screen for susceptibility loci in primary Raynaud’s phenomenon. Arthritis Rheum. 2000;43(7):1641–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shemirani AH, Szomjak E, Balogh E, Andras C, Kovacs D, Acs J, et al. Polymorphism of clotting factors in Hungarian patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2011;22(1):56–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fontana L, Marion MJ, Ughetto S, Catilina P. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and GST T1 genetic polymorphisms and Raynaud’s phenomenon in French vinyl chloride monomer-exposed workers. J Hum Genet. 2006;51(10):879–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weinrich MC, Maricq HR, Keil JE, McGregor AR, Diat F. Prevalence of Raynaud phenomenon in the adult population of South Carolina. J Clin Epidemiol. 1990;43(12):1343–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Harada N, Ueda A, Takegata S. Prevalence of Raynaud’s phenomenon in Japanese males and females. J Clin Epidemiol. 1991;44(7):649–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bartelink ML, Wollersheim H, van de Lisdonk E, Spruijt R, van Weel C. Prevalence of Raynaud’s phenomenon. Neth J Med. 1992;41(3–4):149–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gelber AC, Wigley FM, Stallings RY, Bone LR, Barker AV, Baylor I, et al. Symptoms of Raynaud’s phenomenon in an inner-city African-American community: prevalence and self-reported cardiovascular comorbidity. J Clin Epidemiol. 1999;52(5):441–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Palmer KT, Griffin MJ, Syddall H, Pannett B, Cooper C, Coggon D. Prevalence of Raynaud’s phenomenon in Great Britain and its relation to hand transmitted vibration: a national postal survey. Occup Environ Med. 2000;57(7):448–52.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Roman Ivorra JA, Gonzalvez Perales JL, Fernandez Carballido C, Grana J, Torres MJ. Prevalence of Raynaud’s phenomenon in general practice in the east of Spain. Clin Rheumatol. 2001;20(2):88–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pope JE. Raynaud’s phenomenon (primary). Clin Evid. 2011;03:1119.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    De Angelis R, Del Medico P, Blasetti P, Cervini C. Raynaud’s phenomenon: clinical spectrum of 118 patients. Clin Rheumatol. 2003;22(4–5):279–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Grassi W, De Angelis R, Lapadula G, Leardini G, Scarpa R. Clinical diagnosis found in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon: a multicentre study. Rheumatol Int. 1998;18(1):17–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hirschl M, Kundi M. Initial prevalence and incidence of secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon in patients with Raynaud’s symptomatology. J Rheumatol. 1996;23(2):302–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nagy Z, Czirjak L. Predictors of survival in 171 patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Clin Rheumatol. 1997;16:454–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Walker UA, Tyndall A, Czirjak L, Denton C, Farge-Bancel D, Kowal-Bielecka O, et al. Clinical risk assessment of organ manifestations in systemic sclerosis: a report from the EULAR Scleroderma Trials And Research group database. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007;66(6):754–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pagalavan L, Ong SG. Demography, clinical and laboratory features of systemic sclerosis in a Malaysian rheumatology centre. Med J Malaysia. 2007;62(2):117–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hirschl M, Hirschl K, Lenz M, Katzenschlager R, Hutter H-P, Kundi M. Transition from primary Raynaud’s phenomenon to secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon identified by diagnosis of an associated disease: results of ten years of prospective surveillance. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54(6):1974–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Spencer-Green G. Outcomes in primary Raynaud phenomenon: a meta-analysis of the frequency, rates, and predictors of transition to secondary diseases. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(6):595–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Walker UA, Tyndall A, Czirjak L, Denton CP, Farge-Bancel D, Kowal-Bielecka O, et al. Geographical variation of disease manifestations in systemic sclerosis: a report from the EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) group database. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009;68(6):856–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hartmann P, Mohokum M, Schlattmann P. The association of Raynaud’s syndrome with rheumatoid arthritis–a meta-analysis. Clin Rheumatol. 2011;30(8):1013–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Font J, Ramos-Casals M, Cervera R, Bosch X, Mirapeix E, Garcia-Carrasco M, et al. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in primary Sjogren’s syndrome: prevalence and clinical significance. Br J Rheumatol. 1998;37(12):1287–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Garcia-Carrasco M, Siso A, Ramos-Casals M, Rosas J, de la Red G, Gil V, et al. Raynaud’s phenomenon in primary Sjogren’s syndrome. Prevalence and clinical characteristics in a series of 320 patients. J Rheumatol. 2002;29(4):726–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kraus A, Caballero-Uribe C, Jakez J, Villa AR, Alarcón-Segovia D. Raynaud’s phenomenon in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Association with other extraglandular manifestations. J Rheumatol. 1992; 19:1572–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lin D-F, Yan S-M, Zhao Y, Zhang W, Li M-T, Zeng X-F, et al. Clinical and prognostic characteristics of 573 cases of primary Sjogren’s syndrome. Chin Med J. 2010;123(22):3252–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Skopouli FN, Talal A, Galanopoulou V, Tsampoulas CG, Drosos AA, Moutsopoulos HM. Raynaud’s phenomenon in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. J Rheumatol. 1990;17:618–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Willeke P, Schluter B, Schotte H, Domschke W, Gaubitz M, Becker H. Interferon-gamma is increased in patients with primary Sjogren’s syndrome and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2009;39(3):197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Youinou P, Pennec YL, Katsikis P, Jouquan J, Fauquert P, Le Goff P. Raynaud’s phenomenon in primary Sjögren’s syndrome. Br J Rheumatol. 1990;29:205–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cardinali C, Caproni M, Bernacchi E, Amato L, Fabbri P. The spectrum of cutaneous manifestations in lupus erythematosus—the Italian experience. Lupus. 2000;9:417–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gronhagen CM, Gunnarsson I, Svenungsson E, Nyberg F. Cutaneous manifestations and serological findings in 260 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2010;19(10):1187–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Vitali C, Bencivelli W, Isenberg DA, Smolen JS, Snaith ML, Sciuto M, et al. Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus: report of the Consensus Study Group of the European Workshop for Rheumatology Research. I. A descriptive analysis of 704 European lupus patients. European Consensus Study Group for Disease Activity in SLE. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1992;10(5):527–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Choojitarom K, Verasertniyom O, Totemchokchyakarn K, Nantiruj K, Sumenthkul V, Janwityanujit S. Lupus nephritis and Raynaud’s phenomenon are significant risk factors for vascular thrombosis in SLE patients with positive antiphospholipid antibodies. Clin Rheumatol. 2008;27(3):345–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Liu A, Zhang W, Tian X, Zhang X, Zhang F, Zeng X. Prevalence, risk factors and outcome of digital gangrene in 2684 lupus patients. Lupus. 2009;18(12):1112–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mustafa KN, Dahbour SS. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies from Jordan 1996-2009. Clin Rheumatol. 2010;29(12):1381–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Solomon J, Swigris JJ, Brown KK. Myositis-related interstitial lung disease and antisynthetase syndrome. J Bras Pneumol. 2011;37(1):100–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Grader-Beck T, Wigley FM. Raynaud’s phenomenon in mixed connective tissue disease. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2005;31(3):465–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Danieli MG, Fraticelli P, Franceschini F, Cattaneo R, Farsi A, Passaleva A, et al. Five-year follow-up of 165 Italian patients with undifferentiated connective tissue diseases. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1999;17(5):585–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    De Angelis R, Cerioni A, Del Medico P, Blasetti P. Raynaud’s phenomenon in undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD). Clin Rheumatol. 2005;24(2):145–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cavazzana I, Ceribelli A, Quinzanini M, Scarsi M, Airo P, Cattaneo R, et al. Prevalence and clinical associations of anti-Ku antibodies in systemic autoimmune diseases. Lupus. 2008;17:727–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cooley HM, Melny BJ, Gleeson R, Greco T, Kay TW. Clinical and serological associations of anti-Ku antibody. J Rheumatol. 1999;26(3):563–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cavazzana I, Franceschini F, Vassalini C, Danieli E, Quinzanini M, Airo P, et al. Clinical and serological features of 35 patients with anti-Ki autoantibodies. Lupus. 2005;14:837–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Knapik-Kordecka M, Wysokinski WE. Clinical spectrum of Raynaud’s phenomenon in patients referred to vascular clinic. Cardiovasc Surg. 2000; 8(6):457–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    van Vugt RM, Kater L, Dijkstra PF, Schardijn GH, Kastelein JJ, Bijlsma JW. The outcome of angiography in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon: an unexpected role for atherosclerosis and hypercholesterolemia. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2003;21(4):445–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hartmann P, Mohokum M, Schlattmann P. The association of Raynaud syndrome with thromboangiitis obliterans–a meta-analysis. Angiology. 2012;63(4):315–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Monti G, Galli M, Invernizzi F, Pioltelli P, Saccardo F, Monteverde A, et al. Cryoglobulinaemias: a multi-centre study of the early clinical and laboratory manifestations of primary and secondary disease. GISC. Italian Group for the Study of Cryoglobulinaemias. QJM. 1995;88(2):115–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Stefanova-Petrova DV, Tzvetanska AH, Naumova EJ, Mihailova AP, Hadjiev EA, Dikova RP, et al. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection: prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations and association with cryoglobulinemia in Bulgarian patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13(48):6518–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rogeaux O, Fassin D, Gentilini M. Prevalence of rheumatic manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ann Med Interne (Paris). 1993;144(7):443–8.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Shen M, Zhang F, Zhang X. Pulmonary hypertension in primary biliary cirrhosis: a prospective study in 178 patients. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009;44(2):219–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hartmann P, Mohokum M, Schlattmann P. The association of Raynaud’s syndrome with carpal tunnel syndrome: a meta-analysis. Rheumatol Int. 2012;32(3):569–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sanders RJ, Hammond SL, Rao NM. Thoracic outlet syndrome: a review. Neurologist. 2008;14(6):365–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mohokum M, Hartmann P, Schlattmann P. The association of Raynaud's syndrome with cisplatin-based chemotherapy—a meta-analysis. Eur J Intern Med. 2012;23(7):594–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Geri A. Vascular toxicity associated with chemotherapy for testicular cancer. Anticancer Drugs. 1994; 5:607–14.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Brydoy M, Oldenburg J, Klepp O, Bremnes RM, Wilst EA, Wentzel-Larsen T, et al. Observational study of prevalence of long-term Raynaud-like phenomena and neurological side effects in testicular cancer survivors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:1682–95.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mohokum M, Hartmann P, Schlattmann P. The association of Raynaud syndrome with beta-blockers: a meta-analysis. Angiology. 2012;63(7):535–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mohokum M, Hartmann P, Schlattmann P. Association of Raynaud’s syndrome with interferons. A meta-analysis. Int Angiol. 2012;31(5):408–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Palmer KT, Griffin MJ, Syddall HE, Pannett B, Cooper C, Coggon D. Raynaud's phenomenon, vibration induced white finger, and difficulties in hearing. Occup Environ Med. 2002;59(9):640–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bovenzi M. A follow up study of vascular disorders in vibration-exposed forestry workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2008;81(4):401–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bovenzi M, Franzinelli A, Mancini R, Cannava MG, Maiorano M, Ceccarelli F. Exposure-response relationship for vibration-induced white finger among forestry workers. Cent Eur J Public Health. 1996; 4(1):69–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Nagata C, Yoshida H, Mirbod SM, Komura Y, Fujita S, Inaba R, et al. Cutaneous signs (Raynaud’s phenomenon, sclerodactylia, and edema of the hands) and hand-arm vibration exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1993;64(8):587–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Barregard L, Ehrenstroem L, Marcus K. Hand-arm vibration syndrome in Swedish car mechanics. Occup Environ Med. 2003;60(4):287–94.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bovenzi M. Hand-arm vibration syndrome and dose-response relation for vibration induced white finger among quarry drillers and stonecarvers. Occup Environ Med. 1994;51:603–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Letz R, Cherniack MG, Gerr F, Hershman D, Pace P. A cross sectional epidemiological survey of shipyard workers exposed to hand-arm vibration. Br J Ind Med. 1992;49(1):53–62.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bovenzi M. Vibration-induced white finger and cold response of digital arterial vessels in occupational groups with various patterns of exposure to hand-transmitted vibration. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1998;24(2):138–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Hagberg M, Burstrom L, Lundstrom R, Nilsson T. Incidence of Raynaud’s phenomenon in relation to hand-arm vibration exposure among male workers at an engineering plant a cohort study. J Occup Med Toxicol. 2008;3:13.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Petersen R, Andersen M, Mikkelsen S, Nielsen SL. Prognosis of vibration induced white finger: a follow up study. Occup Environ Med. 1995;52(2):110–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Cooke RA. Hypothenar hammer syndrome: a discrete syndrome to be distinguished from hand-arm vibration syndrome. Occup Med. 2003;53:320–4.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Marie I, Herve F, Primard E, Cailleux N, Levesque H. Long-term follow-up of hypothenar hammer syndrome: a series of 47 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2007;86(6):334–43.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Carpentier P, Biro C, Jiguet M, Maricq H. Prevalence, risk factors, and clinical correlates of ulnar artery occlusion in the general population. J Vasc Surg. 2009;50:1333–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Pavlov-Dolijanovic S, Damjanov NS, Vujasinovic Stupar NZ, Radunovic GL, Stojanovic RM, Babic D Late appearance and exacerbation of primary Raynaud’s phenomenon attacks can predict future development of connective tissue disease: a retrospective chart review of 3,035 patients. Rheumatol Int. 2013;33(4):921–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Ziegler S, Brunner M, Eigenbauer E, Minar E. Long-term outcome of primary Raynaud’s phenomenon and its conversion to connective tissue disease: a 12-year retrospective patient analysis. Scand J Rheumatol. 2003;32(6):343–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Koenig M, Joyal F, Fritzler MJ, Roussin A, Abrahamowicz M, Boire G, et al. Autoantibodies and microvascular damage are independent predictive factors for the progression of Raynaud's phenomenon to systemic sclerosis: a twenty-year prospective study of 586 patients, with validation of proposed criteria for early systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58(12):3902–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pavlov-Dolijanovic S, Damjanov NS, Stojanovic RM, Vujasinovic Stupar NZ, Stanisavljevic DM. Scleroderma pattern of nailfold capillary changes as predictive value for the development of a connective tissue disease: a follow-up study of 3,029 patients with primary Raynaud’s phenomenon. Rheumatol Int. 2012;32(10):3039–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Chung L, Fiorentino D. Digital ulcers in patients with systemic sclerosis. Autoimmun Rev. 2006;5(2):125–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Herrick AL. Management of Raynaud’s phenomenon and digital ischemia. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2013;15(1):303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Khimdas S, Harding S, Bonner A, Zummer B, Baron M, Pope J. Canadian Scleroderma Research Group. Associations with digital ulcers in a large cohort of systemic sclerosis: results from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group registry. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2011;63(1):142–9.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Steen V, Denton CP, Poper JE, Matucci-Cerinic M. Digital ulcers: overt vascular disease in systemic sclerosis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48 Suppl 3:iii19–24.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sunderkoetter C, Herrgott I, Brueckner C, Moinzadeh P, Pfeiffer C, Gerss J, et al. Comparison of patients with and without digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis: detection of possible risk factors. Br J Dermatol. 2009;160(4):835–43.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Galluccio G, Matucci-Cerinic M. Registry evaluation of digital ulcers in systemic sclerosis. Int J Rheumatol. 2010. doi:  10.1155/2010/363679. Epub 2010 Aug 25.
  104. 104.
    Rosato E, Molinaro I, Pisarri S, Salsano F. Digital ulcers as an initial manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. Intern Med. 2011;50(7):767–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Oedegaard KJ, Angst J, Neckelmann D, Fasmer OB. Migraine aura without headache compared to migraine with aura in patients with affective disorders. J Headache Pain. 2005;6(5):378–86.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    O’Keeffe ST, Tsapatsaris NP, Beetham Jr WP. Increased prevalence of migraine and chest pain in patients with primary Raynaud disease. Ann Intern Med. 1992;116(12 Pt 1):985–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    O’Keeffe ST, Tsapatsaris NP, Beetham Jr WP. Association between Raynaud’s phenomenon and migraine in a random population of hospital employees. J Rheumatol. 1993;20(7):1187–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Takats AT, Shemirani AH, Zsori KS, Andras C, Csiki Z. Prothrombotic polymorphisms in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon and migraine. Acta Physiol Hung. 2012;99(4):430–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Lessa B, Santana A, Lima I, Almeida JM, Santiago M. Prevalence and classification of headache in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol. 2006;25(6):850–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Weder-Cisneros ND, Tellez-Zenteno JF, Cardiel MH, Guibert-Toledano M, Cabiedes J, Velasquez-Paz AL, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with headache in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Cephalalgia. 2004;24(12):1031–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Whitelaw DA, Hugo F, Spangenberg JJ, Rickman R. Headaches in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a comparative study. Lupus. 2004;13(7):501–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Guiloff RJ, Rajakulendran S, Angus-Leppan H. Syncope and Raynaud’s disease. Arch Neurol. 2012;69(5):608–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RheumatologyRoyal Adelaide HospitalAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Discipline of MedicineUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations