Advertisement

Orbital Tumors pp 209-227 | Cite as

Peripheral Nerve Tumors

Chapter

Abstract

Peripheral nerve tumors of the orbit arise from cranial nerves III, IV, V, and VI and the ciliary ganglion. These peripheral nerves, in contrast to the optic nerve, are ensheathed by Schwann cells. Some of these tumors may originate from neural or neuroganglionic tissues in the orbit as well. The peripheral nerve tumors covered in this chapter are schwannoma, neurofibroma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), granular cell tumor, alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS), paraganglioma, amputation neuroma, melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, primary orbital neuroblastoma, and primary orbital carcinoid.

Keywords

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Extraocular Muscle Cavernous Hemangioma Granular Cell Tumor Orbital Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Shields JA, Bakewell B, Augsburger JJ, Flanagan JC. Classification and incidence of space-occupying lesions of the orbit. Arch Ophthalmol. 1984;102:1606–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Henderson JW, Campbell RJ, Farrow GM, Garrity JA. Orbital tumors. New York: Raven; 1994. p. 43–52.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gunalp I, Gunduz K. Biopsy-proven orbital lesions in Turkey. A survey of 1092 cases over 30 years. Orbit. 1994;13:67–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Seregard S, Sahlin S. Panorama of orbital space-occupying lesions. The 24-year experience of a referral center. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1999;77:91–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sen DK. Aetiological pattern of orbital tumors in India and their clinical presentations. A 20-year retrospective study. Orbit. 1990;9:299–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Singh M, Singh U, Zadeng Z, et al. Clinico-radiological spectrum and management of orbital schwannomas: a tertiary care institute study. Orbit. 2013 May 10. [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Irace C. Isolated intraorbital schwannomas: the genesis. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23(4):1228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nagashima H, Yamamoto K, Kawamura A, et al. Pediatric orbital schwannoma originating from the oculomotor nerve. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2012;9(2):165–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rato RM, Correia M, Cunha JP, Roque PS. Intraorbital abducens nerve schwannoma. World Neurosurg. 2012;78(3–4):375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rose GE, Wright JE. Isolated peripheral nerve sheath tumours of the orbit. Eye (Lond). 1991;5:668–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carroll GS, Haik BG, Fleming JC, et al. Peripheral nerve tumors of the orbit. Radiol Clin North Am. 1999;37:195–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shields JA, Kapustiak J, Arbizo V, et al. Orbital neurilemoma with extension through the superior orbital fissure. Arch Ophthalmol. 1986;104:871–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Capps DH, Brodsky MC, Rice CD, et al. Orbital intramuscular schwannoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1990; 110:535–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Marc’hadour FL, Romanet JP, Fdili A, Peoc’h M, Pinel N. Schwannoma of the bulbar conjunctiva. Arch Ophthalmol. 1996;114:1258–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Byrne BM, van Heuven WAJ, Lawton AW. Echographic characteristics of benign orbital schwannomas (neurilemomas). Am J Ophthalmol. 1988;106:194–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dervin JE, Beaconsfield M, Wright JE, Moseley IF. CT findings in orbital tumors of nerve sheath origin. Clin Radiol. 1989;40: 475–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abet T, Kawamura N, Homma H, et al. MRI of orbital schwannomas. Head Neck Radiol. 2000;42:466–8.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gündüz K, Shields CL, Günalp I, et al. Orbital schwannoma: correlation of magnetic resonance imaging and pathologic findings. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003;241:593–597. Erratum in: Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2004; 242(2):188.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tsuzuki N, Katoh H, Ohnuki A, et al. Cystic schwannoma of the orbit: case report. Surg Neurol. 2000;54:385–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lam DSC, Ng JSK, To TAF, et al. Cystic schwannoma of the orbit. Eye (Lond). 1997;11:798–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fetkenhour DR, Shields CL, Chao AN, et al. Orbital cavitary rhabdomyosarcoma masquerading as lymphangioma. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001;119:1208–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Xian J, Zhang Z, Wang Z, Li J, Yang B, Chen Q. Evaluation of MR imaging findings differentiating cavernous hemangiomas from schwannomas in the orbit. Eur Radiol. 2010;20:2221–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pecorella I, Toth J, Lukats O. Ancient schwannoma of the orbit. Pathologica. 2012;104(4):182–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hayashi M, Chernov M, Tamura N, et al. Gamma Knife surgery for abducent nerve schwannoma. Report of 4 cases. J Neurosurg. 2010;113(Suppl):136–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kron M, Bohnsack BL, Archer SM, et al. Recurrent orbital schwannomas: clinical course and histopathologic correlation. BMC Ophthalmol. 2012;12:44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Farris SR, Grove Jr AS. Orbital and eyelid manifestations of neurofibromatosis: a clinical study and literature review. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 1996;12(4):245–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Korf BR. Plexiform neurofibromas. Am J Med Genet. 1999; 89(1):31–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Santaolalla F, Sanchez JM, Ereño C, et al. Severe exophthalmos in trigeminal plexiform neurofibroma involving the orbit and the infratemporal fossa. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16(7):970–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Krohel GB, Rosenberg PN, Wright JE, Smith RS. Localized orbital neurofibromas. Am J Ophthalmol. 1985;100:458–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    McDonald P, Jakobiec FA, Hornblass A, Iwamoto T. Benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors (neurofibromas) of the lacrimal gland. Ophthalmology. 1983;90:1403–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shields JA, Shields CL, Lieb WE, et al. Multiple orbital neurofibromas unassociated with von Recklinghausen’s disease. Arch Ophthalmol. 1990;108:80–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Avery RA, Dombi E, Hutcheson KA, et al. Visual outcomes in children with neurofibromatosis type I and orbitotemporal plexiform neurofibronmas. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013;155:1089–1094.e1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jackson IT, Laws Jr ER, Martin RD. The surgical management of orbital neurofibromatosis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1983;71:751–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cheng SF, Chen YI, Chang CY, Peng Y, Liao SL. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the orbit: malignant transformation from neurofibroma without neurofibromatosis. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;24:413–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lyons CJ, McNab AA, Garner A, Wright JE. Orbital malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Br J Ophthalmol. 1989;73: 731–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Eviatar JA, Hornblass A, Herschorn B, Jakobiec FA. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the orbit in a 15-month-old child. Ophthalmology. 1992;99:1595–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brooks JSJ, Freeman M, Enterline HT. Malignant “Triton” tumors. Natural history and immunohistochemistry of nine new cases with review of the literature. Cancer. 1985;55:2543–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Enzinger FM, Weiss SW. Soft tissue tumors. St. Louis: CV Mosby-Year Book; 1995. p. 821–88.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Allaire GS, Laflamme P, Bourgouin P. Granular cell tumour of the orbit. Can J Ophthalmol. 1995;30:151–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Jaeger MJ, Green WR, Miller NR, Harris GJ. Granular cell tumor of the orbit and ocular adnexae. Surv Ophthalmol. 1987;31: 417–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fernandes BF, Belfort Neto R, Odashiro AN, et al. Clinical and histopathological features of orbital granular cell tumor: case report. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2012;75(2):137–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rejas RA, Campos MS, Cortes AR, et al. The neural histogenetic origin of the oral granular cell tumor: an immunohistochemical evidence. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2011;16(1):e6–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Callejo SA, Kronish JW, Decker SJ, et al. Malignant granular cell tumor metastatic to the orbit. Ophthalmology. 2000;107:550–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Obayashi K, Yamada Y, Kozaki M. Granular cell myoblastoma of the orbit. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 1969;20:566–74.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Henderson JW, Campbell RJ, Farrow GM, Garrity JA. Orbital tumors. New York: Raven; 1994. p. 239–268.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Karcioglu ZA, Hemphill GL, Wool BM. Granular cell tumor of the orbit. Case report and review of the literature. Ophthalmic Surg. 1983;14:125–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ahdoot M, Rodgers IR. Granular cell tumor of the orbit: magnetic resonance imaging characteristics. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005;21:395–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ribeiro SFT, Chahud F, Cruz AAV. Oculomotor disturbances due to granular cell tumor. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;28: e23–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Jong R, Kandel R, Fornasier V, et al. Alveolar soft part sarcoma: review of nine cases including two cases with unusual histology. Histopathology. 1998;32(1):63–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Font RL, Jurco S, Zimmerman LE. Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the orbit: a clinicopathologic analysis of seventeen cases and review of the literature. Hum Pathol. 1982;13:569–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Coupland SE, Heimann H, Hoffmeister B, et al. Immunohistochemical examination of an alveolar soft part sarcoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1999;237:266–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rose AM, Kabiru J, Rose GE. Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the orbit. Afr J Paediatr Surg. 2011;8(1):82–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Viry F, Orbach D, Klijanienko J, et al. Alveolar soft part sarcoma-radiologic patterns in children and adolescents. Pediatr Radiol. 2013;43(9):1174–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jordan DR, MacDonald H, Noel L, et al. Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the orbit. Ophthalmic Surg. 1995;26:269–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ehlers JP, Penne RB, Eagle Jr RC, Carrasco JR. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma presenting as an acute orbital mass in the medial rectus muscle. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;23(2):149–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kim HJ, Wojno T, Grossniklaus HE, Shehata BM. Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the orbit: report of 2 cases with review of the literature. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;29(6):e138–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Khan AO, Burke MJ. Alveolar soft-part sarcoma of the orbit. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2004;41:245–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Myssiorek D. Head and neck paragangliomas. An overview. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2001;34:829–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Archer KF, Hurwitz JJ, Balogh JM, Fernandes BJ. Orbital nonchromaffin paraganglioma. A case report and review of the literature. Ophthalmology. 1989;96:1659–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rodriguez-Cuevas S, Lopez-Garza J, Labastida-Almendaro S. Carotid body tumors in inhabitants of altitudes higher than 2000 meters above sea level. Head Neck Surg. 1998;20:374–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bagheri A, Aletaha M, Salour H, et al. Orbital paraganglioma presenting as lateral rectus enlargement and its novel management: a case report and review of literature. Orbit. 2012;3:256–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kim CY, Lee SY. Orbital paraganglioma: gamma knife surgery as a therapeutic option. J Craniofac Surg. 2012;23(4):1127–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Makhdoomi R, Nayil K, Santosh V, Kumar S. Orbital paraganglioma–a case report and review of the literature. Clin Neuropathol. 2010;29(2):100–4.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bednar MM, Trainer TD, Aitken PA, et al. Orbital paraganglioma: case report and review of the literature. Br J Ophthalmol 1992;76:183–185.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ng DT, Francis IC, Whitehouse SA, Kneale KL. Orbital amputation neuroma causing failure of prosthesis wear. Orbit. 2001;20(1):57–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Messmer EP, Camara J, Boniuk M, Font RL. Amputation neuroma of the orbit. Report of two cases and review of the literature. Ophthalmology. 1984;91:1420–3.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wolter JR, Benz CA. Bilateral amputation neuromas of eye muscles. Am J Ophthalmol. 1964;57:287–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Okuba K, Asai T, Sera Y, Okada S. A case of amputation neuroma presenting proptosis. Ophthalmologica. 1987;194:5–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kapadia SB, Frisman DM, Hitchcock CL, Ellis GL, Popek EJ. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy. Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and flow cytometric study. Am J Surg Pathol. 1993;17:566–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bittinger A, Rossberg C, Rodehüser M. Primary malignant ectomesenchymoma of the orbit. Gen Diagn Pathol. 1997;142(3–4): 221–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lamping KA, Albert DM, Lack E, et al. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (retinal anlage tumor). Ophthalmology. 1985;92:143–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Navas Palacios JJ. Malignant melanotic neuroectodermal tumor; light and electron microscopic study. Cancer. 1980;46:529–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Haque S, McCarville MB, Sebire N, McHugh K. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy: CT and MR findings. Pediatr Radiol. 2012;42(6):699–705.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jakobiec FA, Klepach GL, Crissman JD, Spoor TC. Primary differentiated neuroblastoma of the orbit. Ophthalmology. 1987;94:255–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zhang N, Lin LK. Presumed primary orbital neuroblastoma in a 20-month-old female. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;26:383–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Shetlar DJ, Font RL, Ordonez N, et al. A clinicopathologic study of three carcinoid tumors metastatic to the orbit. Immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and DNA flow cytometric studies. Ophthalmology. 1990;97:257–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Zimmerman LE, Stangl R, Riddle PJ. Primary carcinoid tumor of the orbit. A clinicopathologic study with histochemical and electron microscopic observations. Arch Ophthalmol. 1983;101: 1395–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Sippel KC. Ocular findings in neurofibromatosis type 1. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2001;41:25–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    The National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference. Neurofibromatosis. Arch Neurol. 1988;45(5):575–8.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rettele GA, Brodsky MC, Merin LM, et al. Blindness, deafness, quadriparesis and a retinal malformation: The ravages of neurofibromatosis 2. Surv Ophthalmol. 1996;41:135–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gutmann DH, Collins FS. The neurofibromatosis type 1 gene and its protein product, neurofibromin. Neuron. 1993;10:335–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Basu TN, Gutmann DH, Fletcher JA, et al. Aberrant regulation of Ras proteins in malignant tumour cells from type 1 neurofibromatosis patients. Nature. 1992;356:713–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lewis RA, Riccardi VM. Von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis. Incidence of iris hamartoma. Ophthalmology. 1981;88:348–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chaudhry IA, Morales J, Shamsi FA, et al. Orbitofacial neurofibromatosis: clinical characteristics and treatment outcome. Eye (Lond). 2012;26:583–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Altan-Yaycioglu R, Hintschich C. Clinical features and surgical management of orbitotemporal neurofibromatosis: a retrospective interventional case series. Orbit. 2010;29:232–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hoyt WF, Baghdassarian SA. Optic glioma of childhood: natural history and rationale for conservative management. Br J Ophthalmol. 1969;53:793–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Imes RK, Hoyt WF. Childhood chiasmal gliomas: update on the fate of patients in the 1969 San Francisco study. Br J Ophthalmol. 1986;70:179–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Listernick R, Darling C, Greenwald M, et al. Optic pathway tumors in children: the effect of neurofibromatosis on clinical manifestations and natural history. J Pediatr. 1995;127:718–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kovalic JJ, Grigsby PW, Shepard MJ, et al. Radiation therapy for gliomas of the nerve and chiasm. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1990;18:927–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Zeid JL, Charrow J, Sandu M, Goldman S, Listernick R. Orbital optic nerve gliomas in children with neurofibromatosis type 1. J AAPOS. 2006;10:534–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Thiagalingam S, Flaherty M, Billson F, North K. Neurofibromatosis type I and optic pathway gliomas: follow-up of 54 patients. Ophthalmology. 2004;111:568–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Newman RM, Cogen MS. Congenital absence of the superior oblique tendon in a patient with neurofibromatosis. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1997;34:192–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Majid MA, Ah-Fat FG, Wilson R, Marsh IB. Congenital absence of the inferior rectus muscle in a patient with neurofibromatosis. Eye (Lond). 2001;15:795–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Nichols JC, Amato JE, Chung SM. Characteristics of Lisch nodules in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2003;40:293–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lal G, Leavitt JA, Lindor NM, Mahr MA. Unilateral Lisch nodules in the absence of other features of neurofibromatosis 1. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135:567–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Grant WM, Walton DS. Distinctive gonioscopic findings in glaucoma due to neurofibromatosis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1968;79:127–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Edward RP, Morales J, Bouhenni RA, et al. Congenital ectropion uvea and mechanisms of glaucoma in neurofibromatosis type 1: new insights. Ophthalmology. 2012;119:1485–94. doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.01.027. Epub 2012 Apr 4.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Freihi SHA, Edward DP, Nowilaty SR, Abouammoh MA, Morales J. Iris neovascularization and neovascular glaucoma in neurofibromatosis type 1: Report of 3 cases in children. J Glaucoma. 2013;22:336–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Shields JA, Shields CL. Systemic hamartomatoses (“phakomatoses”). In: Shields JA, Shields CL, editors. Intraocular tumors. a text and atlas. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1992. p. 513–39.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Wiznia RA, Freedman JE, Mancini AD, Shields JA. Malignant melanoma of the choroid in neurofibromatosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1978;86:684–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Freedman SF, Elner VM, Donev I, et al. Intraocular neurilemoma arising from the posterior ciliary nerve in neurofibromatosis. Ophthalmology. 1988;95:1559–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mori F, Kawai M, Sato E, et al. Branch retinal vein occlusion in a Japanese patient with neurofibromatosis 1. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2001;45:634–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Elgi U, Berker N, Teke MY, et al. Unusual association of peripheral retinal ischemia-induced neovascular glaucoma and neurofibromatosis type 1. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2010;47 Online:e1–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ragge NK, Baser ME, Klein J, et al. Ocular abnormalities in neurofibromatosis type 2. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995;120:634–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Meyers SM, Gutman FA, Kaye LD, Rothner AD. Retinal changes associated with neurofibromatosis 2. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1995;93:245–52. discussion, 252–257.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Lueder GT, Doll JT. Pseudopapilledema in neurofibromatosis type 2. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;129:405–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Thomas DA, Trobe JD, Cornblath WT. Visual loss secondary to increased intracranial pressure in neurofibromatosis type 2. Arch Ophthalmol. 1999;117:1650–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Brodsky MC, Landau K, Wilson RS, Boltshauser E. Morning glory disc anomaly in neurofibromatosis type 2. Arch Ophthalmol. 1999;117:839–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyAnkara University Faculty of MedicineAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations