Cotton Breeding for Fiber Quality Improvement

  • Greg Constable
  • Danny Llewellyn
  • Sally Ann Walford
  • Jenny D. Clement
Chapter
Part of the Handbook of Plant Breeding book series (HBPB, volume 9)

Abstract

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the world’s leading fiber crop, grown or processed in many countries, providing a major contribution to their economies. Yield is economically most important to a producer which drives cultivar development and adoption; however, fiber quality is the primary focus for spinning mills. Cotton fiber quality must improve to remain competitive with synthetics due to increased demands for lightweight casual garments which require longer, stronger, and finer fibers. Improved cotton yields and fiber quality have continued to be realized through science-based plant breeding, particularly in countries and production systems with suitable climate and appropriate management inputs to maximize those improvements. The most significant challenge for cotton breeders has been to combine high yield with improved fiber quality, due to negative associations between yield and quality attributes in G. hirsutum. This chapter highlights practices to enable simultaneous improvement of yield and fiber quality during conventional breeding. There are adequate genetic resources available for innovative cotton breeders to make more progress, but new tools being offered by modern molecular technologies will achieve those gains more efficiently. Advances in fiber quality science have been made in cotton biotechnology – by improving our understanding of fiber development phases that contribute to fiber quality through gene discovery, genome mapping, and identification of linked molecular markers. Novel biotechnology traits have the potential to improve fiber yield and quality by altering the developmental phase associated with fibers per seed, fiber length, strength, and fineness. Biotechnology tools to facilitate improved conventional breeding through marker-assisted selection are also under development, particularly high-throughput techniques based on single nucleotide polymorphisms derived from next-generation sequencing. There are clearly great opportunities for better integration of conventional breeding and molecular biology, and as new GM traits are developed, a future challenge will be to combine multiple GM traits into elite cultivars. This could be assisted by the judicious use of molecular markers to herald a new age in cotton improvement. Cotton is one of the pioneer crops for the introduction of genetically modified (GM) insect and herbicide resistance, with about 80 % of global cotton being GM by 2012. That experience of research and deployment of these first-generation GM traits provides the foundation for development and exploitation of GM novel fiber property traits in the future.

Keywords

Cotton Fiber quality Plant breeding Genetic resources Genetic diversity Fiber development Genetic engineering Transgene Fiber biotechnology Transcription factor Quantitative trait loci Marker-assisted selection Marker-assisted backcrossing Single nucleotide polymorphism Next-generation sequencing Genome sequencing 

Abbreviations

AFIS

Advanced Fiber Information System

AFLP

Amplified fragment length polymorphisms

AOSCA

Association of Official Seed Certifying Agencies

BAC

Bacterial Artificial Chromosome

CesA

Cellulose synthase A

CS-B

Chromosome substitution

CSIRO

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (Australia)

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

dpa

Days post anthesis

eQTL

Expression quantitative trait loci

FMT

Fineness and maturity tester

GBS

Genotype-by-sequencing

GM

Genetically modified

GS

Genomic selection

HD

Homeodomain

HVI

High volume instrumentation

IAA

Indole-3-acetic acid

ISTA

International Seed Testing Association

KAP61R

Keratin-associated protein

KASPar

KBioscience competitive allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay

MABC

Marker-assisted backcrossing

MAS

Marker-assisted selection

MYB

V-Myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog

NGS

Next-generation sequencing

NIL

Near-isogenic line

OECD

Organisation for Economic and Co-operation and Development

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PHB

Polyhydroxybutyrate

QTL

Quantitative trait loci

RAD-Seq

Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing

RAPD

Restriction fragment length polymorphism

RIL

Recombinant inbred line

RNAi

RNA (ribonucleic acid) interference

SCW

Secondary cell wall

SNP

Single nucleotide polymorphisms

SSCA

Southern Seed Certification Association

SSR

Simple sequence repeats

SusA1

Sucrose synthase A1

TILLING

Targeting induced local lesions in genomes

TM-1

Texas marker-1

XTH

Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Greg Constable
    • 1
  • Danny Llewellyn
    • 2
  • Sally Ann Walford
    • 2
  • Jenny D. Clement
    • 1
  1. 1.Agriculture Flagship of Plant IndustryCSIRONarrabriAustralia
  2. 2.Agriculture Flagship of Plant IndustryCSIROActonAustralia

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