Physiological Monitoring for Procedural Sedation: The Routine and Beyond



Physiological monitoring of vital signs is essential for the safe practice of procedural sedation and analgesia. Oxygenation, ventilation, cortical activity, and hemodynamics can all be monitored noninvasively in spontaneously breathing patients. This chapter discusses the current guidelines and standards for patient monitoring, the essential monitoring modalities for procedural sedation and analgesia in children, and future directions in the field of monitoring.


Physiologic monitoring Procedural sedation Oxygenation monitoring Ventilation monitoring Hemodynamic monitoring Capnography Depth of sedation Bispectral index (BIS) Cerebral oximetry Noninvasive cardiovascular monitoring American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Joint Commission American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Electroencephalogram (EEG) Ramsay Sedation Scale (RSS) Observer’s Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale (OAA/S) University of Michigan Sedation Scale (UMSS) 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pediatric Emergency MedicineMorgan Stanley Children’s Hospital of New York, Columbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Division of Emergency MedicineBoston Children’s HospitalBostonUSA

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