Advertisement

A Basic and Applied Model of the Body–Mind System

Chapter
  • 2.6k Downloads

Abstract

The first part of the chapter describes recent attempts to integrate biopsychosocial theories. Integrative theories differ by emphasizing some particular subsets of ideas from the range of neuroscientifically relevant domains of knowledge. Each favors some particular combination of ideas from evolution, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, ethology, cybernetics, neurology, neuropharmacology, neuropsychology and, developmental, cognitive, social, and organizational psychology. The second part of the chapter describes an application of my theory. Specifically, a scheme for characterizing biopsychosocial states is described. It considers variables of the autonomic nervous system (parasympathetic tone and sympathetic arousal), subjective experiences of thought and feeling, and overt behavior. For clarity, the applied model considers only three levels of sympathetic arousal and three levels of parasympathetic tone (high, average, and low). The result is nine sorts of somatopsychic conditions, or “prototype states:” three statistically normal, three pathological, and three highly competent. I think misattribution of sympathetic arousal underlies most forms of psychopathology, especially somatoform disorders like hypochondria and chronic pain, and cognitive disorders involving the regulation of focal attention. By definition, cognitive and motivational theories need to be integrated to explain how the mind and brain are in constant, mutual, bidirectional, causal relationships. Affective neuroscience is insufficient as a foundation for building an integrative mind–body theory because it has no real concepts for understanding the neocortical processing of semantic concepts. And, these are the most powerful controlling agencies of the person.

Keywords

Neuropsychoanalysis Psychopharmacology Normal mental states Psychopathology Semantic concepts Feelings 

References

  1. Alloy, L. B., & Ahrens, H. (1987). Depression and pessimism for the future: Biased use of statistically relevant information in predictions for self versus others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(2), 366–378. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.52.2.366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amen, D. G. (2008). Predicting positive and negative treatment responses to stimulants with brain SPECT imagining. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 40(2), 131–138. doi:10.1080/02791072.2008.10400622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. R. (1983). A spreading activation theory of memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 22(3), 261–295. doi:10.1016/S0022-5371(83)90201-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banich, M.T. (2009). Executive function: the search for an ingrated account. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(2): 89–94.Google Scholar
  5. Bernstein, W. M. (1984). Denial and self-defense. Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought, 7(3), 423–457.Google Scholar
  6. Bernstein, W. M. (2011). A basic theory of neuropsychoanalysis. London: Karnac.Google Scholar
  7. Bernstein, W. M. (2012). Diagnosing mental illness. Archives of Medical Psychology, 3(2), 45–59.Google Scholar
  8. Bernstein, W. M. (2014). The realisation of concepts: Infinity, cognition, and health. London: Karnac.Google Scholar
  9. Bernstein, W. M., & Burke, W. W. (1989). Modeling organizational meaning systems. In: R. W. Woodman & W. A. Passmore (Eds.), Research in organization change and development (Vol. 3, pp. 117–159). CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bernstein, W. M., Stephenson, B. O., Snyder, M. L., & Wicklund, R. A. (1983). Causal ambiguity and heterosexual affiliation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19(1), 78–92. doi:10.1016/0022-1031(83)90006-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Biederman, I., & Vessel, E. A. (2006). Perceptual pleasure and the brain. American Scientist, 94(3), 249–255. doi:ww.jstor.org/stable/27858773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bion, W. R. (1962). The psychoanalytic study of thinking. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 43, 306–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Boyle, M. P., Brewer, J. A., Funatsu, M., Wozian, D. F., Tsien, J. Z., Isumi, Y., & Muglia, L. J. (2004). Acquired deficit of forebrain glucocorticoid receptor produces depression-like changes in adrenal axis regulation and behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(4), 473–478. doi:10.1073/pnas.0406458102.Google Scholar
  14. Brady, J. V. (1958). Ulcers in executive monkeys. Scientific American, 199(4): 95–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Braak, H., & Braak, E. (1996). Development of Alzheimer-related neurofibrillary changes in the neocortex inversely recapitulates cortical myelogenesis. Acta Neuropathologica, 92(2), 197–201. doi:10.1007/s004010050508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brenner, C. (2006). Psychoanalysis or mind and meaning. New York: The Psychoanalytic Quarterly.Google Scholar
  17. Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  18. Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (1981). Attention and self-regulation: A control theory approach to human behavior. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Collins, A. M., & Loftus, E. F. (1975). A spreading activation theory of semantic processing. Psychological Review, 82(6), 407–428. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.82.6.407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Csikzentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. Madison: Westview.Google Scholar
  21. Decety, J., & Ickes, W. (Eds.). (2009). The social neuroscience of empathy. Cambridge: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Deci, E. L. (1971). The effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18(1), 105–115. doi:10.1037/h0030644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dehaene, S. (2003). The neural basis of the Weber-Fechner law: A logarithmic number line. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(4), 145–147. doi:10.1016/S1364-6613(03)00055-X.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Demos, E. V. (1995). Introduction. In: E.V. Demos (Ed.), Exploring affect: The selected writings of Sylvan S. Tompkins. New York: Cambridge Press.Google Scholar
  25. Diamond, D. M., Campbell, A. M., Park, C. R. and Halonen, A. (2007). The temporal dynamics model of emotional memory processing: A synthesis on the neurobiological basis of stress-induced amnesia, flashbulb and traumatic memories, and the Yerkes-Dodson law. Neural Plasticity. (Article ID 60803). doi:10.1155/2007/60803.Google Scholar
  26. Dutton, D. G., & Aron, A. P. (1974). Some evidence for heightened sexual attraction under conditions of high anxiety. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30(4), 510–517. doi:10.1037/h0037031.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Duval, T. A., & Wicklund, R. A. (1972). A theory of objective self-awareness. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  28. Ekman, P. (1973). Darwin’s compassionate view of human nature. Journal of the American Medical Association, 303(6), 557–558. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (2008). Social cognition: From brains to culture. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  30. Freud, S. (1895). Project for a scientific psychology (S.E. I, pp. 281–387). London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  31. Freud, S. (1905). Three essays on the theory of sexuality (S.E. VII, pp. 145–243). London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  32. Freud, S. (1913). Totem and taboo (S.E. XIII, pp. 86–88). London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  33. Freud, S. (1915). Instincts and their vicissitudes (S.E. 14, pp. 117–140). London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  34. Freud, S. (1920). Beyond the pleasure principle (S.E. XVIII, pp. 7–64). London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  35. Freud, S. (1921). Group psychology and the analysis of the ego (S.E. XVII, pp. 67–143). London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  36. Freud, S. (1923). The ego and id (S.E. XIX, pp. 3–66). London: Hogarth.Google Scholar
  37. Galliot, M. T., Baumeister, R. F., DeWalt, C. N., Maner, J. K., Plant, E. A., Tice, D. M., Brewer, I. E., & Schmeichel, B. J. (2007). Self-control relies on glucose as a limited energy source: Will power is more than a metaphor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(2), 325–336. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.92.2.325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ghose, K. (1975). Intravenous tyramine pressor response in depression. Lancet, 305(7920), 1317–1318. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(75)92319-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gonzales-Forero, D., Benitez-Temino, B., de la Cruz, R. R., & Pastor, A. M. (2004). Functional recovery in the peripheral and central nervous system after injury. In: T. Herdegen & J. Delgado-Garcia (Eds.), Brain damage and repair: From molecular research to clinical therapy (pp. 285–306). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  40. Harvey, S. B., Hotopf, M., Overland, S., & Mykletun, A. (2010). Physical activity and common mental disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197, 357–364. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp. 109.075176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Heise, D. R. (2010). Surveying cultures: Discovering shared conceptions and sentiments. Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  43. Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of behavior. New York: Appleton.Google Scholar
  44. Kalivas, P., Churchill, L., & Klitenick, M. (1993). The circuitry mediating the translation of motivational stimuli into adaptive motor resonses. In P. Kalivas & C. Barnes (Eds.), Limbic motor circuits and neuropsychiatry (pp. 391–420). New York: CRC.Google Scholar
  45. Karpova, N. N., Pickenhagen, A., Lindholm, J., Tiraboschi, E., Kulesskay, N., Agustdottir, A., Antila, H., Popova, D., Akamine, Y., Sullivan, R., Hen, R., Drew, L.J., & Castren, F. (2011). Fear erasure in mice requires synergy between antidepressant drugs and extinction training. Science, 334(6063), 1731–1734. doi:10.1126/science.1214592.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1973). The social psychology of organizations. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  47. Kelly, H. H. (1967). Attribution theory in social psychology. In: D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 15, pp. 192–238). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  48. Kemper, T. L., & Baumer, M. (1998). Neuropathology of infantile autism. Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, 57(7): 645–652.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Krakauer, J. M. (2005). Arm function after stroke: From physiology to recovery. Seminars in Neurology, 25(4), 384–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lanzetta, J. T., & Orr, S. P. (1986). Excitatory strength of expressive faces: Effects of happy and fear expressions and context on the extinction of a conditioned fear response. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(1), 190–194.Google Scholar
  51. LeDoux, J. (1996). The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. New York: Touchstone.Google Scholar
  52. Lewin, K. (1935). A dynamic theory of personality. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  53. Lieberman, M. S., & Eisenberger, N. I. (2004). Conflict and habit: A social cognitive neuroscience approach to the self. In A. Tesser, J. Wood, & D. A. Stapel (Eds.), Building, defending and regulating the self (pp. 77–102). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  54. MacLean, P. (1990). The triune brain in evolution. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Massey, P. V., & Bashir, Z. I. (2007). Long-term depression: Multiple forms and implications for brain function. Trends in Neuroscience, 30(4), 176–84. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2007.02.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Meyer-Lindenberg A., Domes, G., Kirsch, P., & Heinrichs, M. (2011). Oxytocin and vasopressin in the human brain: social neuropeptides for translational medicine. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12, 524–538. doi:10.1038/nrn3044.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Miller, N. E. (1944). Experimental studies of conflict. In J. Hunt (Ed.), Personality and the behavior disorders (pp. 431–465). New York: Ronald Press.Google Scholar
  58. Miller, N. E., & Dollard, J. (1941). Social learning and imitation. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Miller, G. A., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K. H. (1986). Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Adams Bannister Cox.Google Scholar
  60. Modell, J. H., Idris, A. H., Pineda, J. A., & Silverstein, J. H. (2004). Survival after prolonged submersion in freshwater in Florida. Chest, 125(5), 1948–1951. doi:10.1378/chest.125.5.1948.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Najmi, S., & Wegner, D. M. (2008). The gravity of unwanted thought: Asymmetric priming effects in thought suppression. Consciousness and Cognition, 17(1), 114–124. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2007.01.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Northoff, G. (2011). Neuropsychoanalysis in practice: Brain, self and objects. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nugent, A. C., Bain, E. E., Thayer, J. F., Sollers, J. J., & Drevets, W. C. (2011). Heart rate range during motor and cognitive tasks in females with major depressive disorder. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 191(1), 1–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Olshansky, B., Hani, N., Sabbah, H. N., Hauptman, P. J., & Colucci, W. S. (2008). Parasympathetic nervous system and heart failure: Pathophysiology and potential implications for therapy. Circulation, 118, 863–871. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.760405.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Osgood, C. E., Succi, G. J., & Tannenbaum, P. H. (1957). The measurement of meaning. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  66. Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Panksepp, J., & Wright, J. S. (2012). Response to commentaries. Neuropsychoanalysis, 14(1), 59–75. doi:10.1080/15294145.2012.1077369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pennebaker, J. W. (1989). Confession, inhibition, and disease. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 22, pp. 211–244). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  69. Porges, S. W. (2011). The polyvagal theory: Neurophysiological foundations of emotions, attachment, communication, and self-regulation. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  70. Sarno, J. E. (1991). Healing back pain: The mind-body connection. New York: Warner Books.Google Scholar
  71. Schachter, S., & Singer, J. (1962). Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of the emotional state. Psychological Review, 69(5), 379–399. doi:10.1037/h0046234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Schore, A. N. (2003). Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  73. Seligman, M. E. P. (1975). Helplessness: On depression, development, and death. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  74. Selye, H. (1936). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. Nature, 138(3479), 32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Siegel, D. J. (2012). The developing mind: How relationships and the brain interact to shape who we are (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  76. Smith, M. E., & Farah, M. J. (2011). Are prescription stimulants smart pills? The epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience of prescription stimulant use by normal health individuals. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 717–735.Google Scholar
  77. Snyder, A. W., & Mitchell, D. J. (1999). Is integer arithmetic fundamental to mental processing: The mind’s secret arithmetic. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Biology, 266(1419), 587–592. doi:10.1098/rspb.1999.0676.Google Scholar
  78. Snyder, A. W., Bossomaier, T., & Mitchell, D. J. (2004). Concept formation: Object attributes dynamically inhibited from conscious awareness. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, 3, 31–46. doi:10.1142/S0219635204000361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Snyder, A. W., Bahramali, H., Hawker, T., & Mitchell, D. (2006). Savant-like numerosity skills revealed in normal people by magnetic pulses. Perception, 35, 837−884. doi:10.1068/p5539.Google Scholar
  80. Solms, M., & Turnbull, O. (2002). The brain and the inner world: Introduction to the neuroscience of subjective experience. New York: Other Press.Google Scholar
  81. Spence, K. W. (1956). Behavior theory and conditioning. New Haven: Yale University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Stewart, W. H., & Roth, P. L. (2001). Risk propensity differences between entrepreneurs and managers: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(1), 145–153. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.86.1.145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Swanson, J. M., Wigal, T. L., & Volkow, N. D. (2011). Contrast of medical and nonmedical use of stimulant drugs, basis for the distinction, and risk of addiction: Comment on Smith and Farah. Psychological Bulletin, 137(5), 742–748. doi:10.1037/a0024898.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Thomas J. L. (2012). Neurofeedback: A new modality for treating brain problems. Archives of Medical Psychology, 3(1), 21–35.Google Scholar
  85. Thorndike, E. L. (1913). The psychology of learning. New York: Teachers College.Google Scholar
  86. Tomkins, S. (1962). Affect imagery consciousness: Volume I, The positive affects. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  87. Tomkins, S. (1963). Affect imagery consciousness: Volume II, The negative affects. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  88. Tinbergen, N. (1951). The study of instinct. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Westen, D. (1999). The scientific status of unconscious processes: Is Freud really dead? Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 47(4), 1061–1106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wicklund, R. A. (1975). Objective self-awareness. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 233–275). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  91. Wilson, E. O. (1984). Biophilia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Wilson, E. O. (1999). Consilience: The unity of knowledge. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  93. Winnicott, D. W. (1960). The theory of the parent-infant relationship. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 41(6), 585–595.Google Scholar
  94. Yerkes, R. M., & Dodson, J. D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18(5), 459–482. doi:10.1002/cne.920180503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Zillmann, D. (1983). Transfer of excitation in emotional behavior. In: J. T. Cacioppo & R. E. Petty (Eds.), Social psychophysiology: A sourcebook (pp. 215–240). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  96. Zucker, T. L., Samuelson, K. W., Muench, F., Greenberg, M. A., & Gevirtz, R. N. (2009). The effects of respiratory sinus arrhythmia biofeedback on heart rate range and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: a pilot study. Applied Psychophysiological Biofeedback, 34(2), 135–143. doi:10.1007/s10484-009-9085-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.American Board of Medical PsychologyAlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations