The Systematics of the Trematoda

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 766)

Abstract

The platyhelminth class Trematoda comprises two subclasses with largely disparate species diversity, the small Aspidogastrea with c. 80 species and the speciose Digenea with c. 18,000 species, which has attracted much effort towards our understanding of evolutionary relationships among suprageneric taxa. This chapter focuses on insights into the classification of the Digenea that crystallised from our advanced understanding of both morphological and molecular data. The field of molecular systematics of the Digenea has experienced significant advances over the past 15 years. Phylogenetic analyses of sequence data predominantly from the 18S and 28S rRNA genes have incorporated a considerable diversity of taxa thus increasing the accuracy of phylogenetic inferences at higher taxonomic levels. As a result, the status of long-standing supraspecific taxa has been revised, new higher-level taxa have been defined and inferences made in association with morphological and life-cycle evidence. A substantial effort has been made towards a classification reflecting a natural system of the Digenea by considering morphological evidence in conjunction with phylogenies inferred from molecular data; this has resulted in considerable congruence. However, limited taxon sampling in the phylogeny of the Digenea still remains relevant especially in relation to some higher-level taxa, and an outline of these omissions is presented. A framework that has led to robust estimates of phylogeny is outlined and the application of advanced morphological and molecular approaches in digenean taxonomy and systematics is illustrated using the most comprehensively studied digenean superfamilies.

Keywords

Bivalve Schistosoma Melis Carus 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The first author acknowledges partial support by the Czech Science Foundation (Grant P505/10/1562).

References

  1. 1.
    Rohde K (2001) The Aspidogastrea: an archaic group of Platyhelminthes. In: Littlewood DTJ, Bray RA (eds) Interrelationships of the Platyhelminthes. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rohde K (2002) Subclass Aspidogastrea Faust & Tang, 1936. In: Gibson DI, Jones A, Bray RA (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 1. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gibson DI (1987) Questions in digenean systematics and evolution. Parasitology 95:429–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cribb TH, Bray RA, Olson PD, Littlewood DTJ (2003) Life cycle evolution in the Digenea: a new perspective from phylogeny. Adv Parasitol 54:197–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rohde K (1972) The Aspidogastrea, especially Multicotyle purvisi Dawes, 1941. Adv Parasitol 10:77–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rohde K (1994) The minor groups of parasitic Platyhelminthes. Adv Parasitol 33:145–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gibson DI, Chinabut S (1984) Rohdella siamensis gen. et sp. nov. (Aspidogastridae: Rohdeliinae subfam. nov.) from freshwater fishes in Thailand, with a reorganisation of the classification of the subclass Aspidogastrea. Parasitology 88:383–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zamparo D, Brooks DR (2003) Phylogenetic systematic assessment of the Aspidobothrea (Platyhelminthes, Neodermata, Trematoda). Zool Scripta 32:83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bray RA (2008) Introduction and key to superfamilies. In: Bray RA, Gibson DI, Jones A (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 3. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cribb TH, Bray RA, Littlewood DTJ, Pichelin S, Herniou EA (2001) Relationships of the Digenea - evidence from molecules and morphology. In: Littlewood DTJ, Bray RA (eds) Interrelationships of the Platyhelminthes. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bray RA, Cribb TH (2003) The digeneans of elasmobranchs-distribution and evolutionary significance. In: Combes C, Jourdane J (eds) Taxonomie, écologie et évolution des métazoaires parasites. (Livre hommage à Louis Euzet). Tome 1. PUP, Perpignan, FranceGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Littlewood DTJ (2006) The evolution of parasitism in flatworms. In: Maule AG, Marks NJ (eds) Parasitic flatworms. Molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology and physiology. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nolan MJ, Cribb TH (2005) The use and implications of ribosomal DNA sequencing for the discrimination of digenean species. Adv Parasitol 60:101–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gibson DI, Bray RA (1994) The evolutionary expansion and host-parasite relationships of the Digenea. Int J Parasitol 24:1213–1226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gibson DI (2002) Class Trematoda Rudolphi, 1808. In: Gibson DI, Jones A, Bray RA (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 1. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pearson JC (1992) On the position of the digenean family Heronimidae: an enquiry into a cladistic classification of the Digenea. Syst Parasitol 21:81–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Poche F (1926) Das System der Platodaria. Arch Naturgesch 91:1–459Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    La Rue GR (1957) The classification of digenetic Trematoda: a review and a new system. Exp Parasitol 6:306–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cable RM (1974) Phylogeny and taxonomy of trematodes with reference to marine species. In: Vernberg WB (ed) Symbiosis in the Sea. University of South California Press, CharlestonGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Odening K (1961) Historische und moderne Gesichtspunkte beim Aufbau eines natürlichen Systems der digenetischen Trematoden. Biol Beitr 1:73–90Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Odening K (1974) Verwandtschaft, System und zyklo-ontogenetische Besonderheiten der Trematoden. Zool Jahrb Systematik 101:345–396Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brooks DR, O’Grady RT, Glen DR (1985) Phylogenetic analysis of the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Cercomeria) with comments on their adaptive radiation. Can J Zool 63:411–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pearson JC (1972) A phylogeny of life-cycle patterns of the Digenea. Adv Parasitol 10:153–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gibson DI, Jones A, Bray RA (eds) (2002) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 1. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jones A, Bray RA, Gibson DI (eds) (2005) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 2. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bray RA, Gibson DI, Jones A (eds) (2008) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 3. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Olson PD, Cribb TH, Tkach VV, Bray RA, Littlewood DTJ (2003) Phylogeny and classification of the Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda). Int J Parasitol 33:733–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Thaenkham U, Blair D, Nawa Y, Waikagul J (2012) Families Opisthorchiidae and Heterophyidae: Are they distinct? Parasitol Int 61:90–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Olson PD, Tkach VV (2005) Advances and trends in the molecular systematics of the parasitic Platyhelminthes. Adv Parasitol 60:165–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Blair D, Barker S (1993) Affinities of the Glyauchenidae: utility of the 18S rRNA gene for the phylogenetic inference in the Digenea (Platyhelminthes). Int J Parasitol 23:527–532Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Blair D, Bray RA, Barker SC (1998) Molecules and morphology in phylogenetic studies of the Hemiuroidea (Digenea: Trematoda: Platyhelminthes). Mol Phylogent Evol 9:15–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Fernandez M, Littlewood DTJ, Latorre A, Raga JA, Rollinson D (1998) Phylogenetic relationships of the family Campulidae (Trematoda) based on 18S rDNA sequences. Parasitology 117:383–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hall KA, Cribb TH, Barker SC (1999) V4 region of small subunit rDNA indicates polyphyly of the Fellodistomidae (Digenea) which is supported by morphology and life-cycle data. Syst Parasitol 43:81–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Barker SC, Blair D, Garrett AR, Cribb TH (1993) Utility of the D1 domain of nuclear 28S rRNA for phylogenetic inference in the Digenea. Syst Parasitol 26:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tkach VV, Pawlowski J, Mariaux J (2000) Phylogenetic analysis of the suborder Plagiorchiata (Platyhelminthes, Digenea) based on partial lsrDNA sequences. Int J Parasitol 30:89–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Odening K (1964) Exkretionssystem und systematische stellung einiger Fledermaustrematoden aus Berlin und Umgebung nebst Bemerkungen zum lecithodendrioiden Komplex. Z Parasitenkd 24:453–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brooks DR, Bandoni SM, MacDonald CA, O’Grady RT (1989) Aspects of the phylogeny of the Trematoda Rudolphi, 1808 (Platyhelminthes: Cercomeria). Can J Zool 67:2609–2624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brooks DR, McLennan DA (1993) Parascript. Parasites and the language of evolution. Smithsonian Institution Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tkach VV (2008) Family Leptophallidae Dayal, 1938. In: Bray RA, Gibson DI, Jones A (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 3. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Font WF, Lotz JM (2008) Family Telorchiidae Looss, 1899. In: Bray RA, Gibson DI, Jones A (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 3. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tkach VV, Pawlowski J, Mariaux J, Swiderski Z (2001) Molecular phylogeny of the suborder Plagiorchiata and its position in the system of Digenea. In: Littlewood DTJ, Bray RA (eds) Interrelationships of the Platyhelminthes. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tkach VV, Littlewood DTJ, Olson PD, Kinsella JM, Swiderski Z (2003) Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Microphalloidea Ward, 1901 (Trematoda: Digenea). Syst Parasitol 56:1–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Deblock S (2008) Family Microphallidae Ward, 1901. In: Bray RA, Gibson DI, Jones A (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 3. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lotz JM, Font WF (2008) Family Pleurogenidae Looss, 1899. In: Bray RA, Gibson DI, Jones A (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 3. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jones A (2008) Family Prosthogonimidae Lühe, 1909. In: Bray RA, Gibson DI, Jones A (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 3. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gibson DI (1996) Trematoda. In: Margolis L, Kabata Z (eds) Guide to the parasites of fishes of Canada, vol 124, Part IV. Canadian special publication of fisheries and aquatic sciences. NRC, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cribb TH (2005) Superfamily Allocreadioidea Looss, 1902. In: Jones A, Bray RA, Gibson DI (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 2. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tkach VV (2008) Family Glypthelminthidae Cheng, 1959. In: Bray RA, Gibson DI, Jones A (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 3. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tkach VV (2008) Family Haematoloechidae Freitas & Lent, 1939. In: Bray RA, Gibson DI, Jones A (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 3. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kostadinova A, Gibson DI (2002) Isthmiophora Lühe, 1909 and Euparyphium Dietz, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) re-defined, with comments on their nominal species. Syst Parasitol 52:205–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kostadinova A (2005) Family Echinostomatidae Looss, 1899. In: Jones A, Bray RA, Gibson DI (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 2. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gibson DI (2002) Superfamily Hemiuroidea Looss, 1899. In: Gibson DI, Jones A, Bray RA (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 1. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bray RA, Gibson DI (1977) The Accacoeliidae (Digenea) of fishes from the north-east Atlantic. Bull Br Mus Nat Hist (Zool) 31:51–99Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gibson DI, Bray RA (1977) The Azygiidae, Hirudinellidae, Ptychogonimidae, Sclerodistomidae and Syncoeliidae (Digenea) of fishes from the north-east Atlantic. Bull Br Mus Nat His (Zool) 32:167–245Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gibson DI, Bray RA (1986) The Hemiuridae (Digenea) of fishes from the north-east Atlantic. Bull Br Mus Nat Hist (Zool) 51:1–125Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gibson DI, Bray RA (1979) The Hemiuroidea: terminology, systematics and evolution. Bull Br Mus Nat Hist (Zool) 36:35–146Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gibson DI (2002) Superfamily Azygioidea Lühe, 1909. In: Gibson DI, Jones A, Bray RA (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 1. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pankov P, Webster BL, Blasco-Costa I, Gibson DI, Littlewood DTJ, Balbuena JA, Kostadinova A (2006) Robinia aurata n. g., n. sp. (Digenea: Hemiuridae) from Liza aurata (Perciformes: Mugilidae) in the western Mediterranean described from morphology and molecules. Parasitology 133:217–227Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bray RA, Webster BL, Bartoli P, Littlewood DTJ (2005) Relationships within the Acanthocolpidae Lühe, 1906 and their place among the Digenea. Acta Parasitol 50:281–291Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bray RA, Waeschenbach A, Cribb TH, Weedall GD, Dyal P, Littlewood DTJ (2009) The phylogeny of the Lepocreadioidea (Platyhelminthes, Digenea) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial genes: Implications for their systematics and evolution. Acta Parasitol 54:310–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bray RA, Cribb TH (1997) The subfamily Aephnidiogeninae Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Lepocreadiidae), its status and that of the genera Aephnidiogenes Nicoll, 1915, Holorchis Stossich, 1901, Austroholorchis gen. n., Pseudaephnidiogenes Yamaguti (1971), Pseudoholorchis Yamaguti, 1958 and Neolepocreadium Thomas, 1960. Syst Parasitol 36:47–68Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bray RA (2005) Family Enenteridae Yamaguti, 1958. In: Jones A, Bray RA, Gibson DI (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 2. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bray RA (2005) Family Gorgocephalidae Manter, 1966. In: Jones A, Bray RA, Gibson DI (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 2. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bray RA (2005) Family Lepocreadiidae Odhner, 1905. In: Jones A, Bray RA, Gibson DI (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 2. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bray RA (2005) Superfamily Lepocreadioidea Odhner, 1905. In: Jones A, Bray RA, Gibson DI (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 2. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hall KA, Cribb TH (2005) Family Gyliauchenidae Fukui, 1929. In: Jones A, Bray RA, Gibson DI (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 2. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bray RA, Cribb TH (2012) Reorganisation of the superfamily Lepocreadioidea Odhner, 1905 based on an inferred molecular phylogeny. Syst Parasitol 83:169–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Tkach VV, Grabda-Kazubska B, Pawlowski J, Świderski Z (1999) Molecular and morphological evidence for close phylogenetic affinities of the genera Macrodera, Leptophallus, Metaleptophallus and Paralepoderma (Digenea, Plagiorchiata). Acta Parasitol 44:170–179Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tkach VV, Pawlowski J, Sharpilo VP (2000) Molecular and morphological differentiation between species of the Plagiorchis vespertilionis group (Digenea, Plagiorchiidae) occurring in European bats, with a re-description of P. vespertilionis (Müller, 1780). Syst Parasitol 47:9–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tkach VV, Grabda-Kazubska B, Świderski Z (2001) Systematic position and phylogenetic relationships of the family Omphalometridae Odening, 1959 (Digenea, Plagiorchiida) inferred from the partial lsrDNA sequences. Int J Parasitol 31:81–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tkach VV, Snyder SD, Świderski Z (2001) On the phylogenetic relationships of some members of Macroderoididae and Ochetosomatidae (Digenea, Plagiorchioidea). Acta Parasitol 46:267–275Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Tkach VV (2008) Family Plagiorchiidae Lühe, 1901. In: Bray RA, Gibson DI, Jones A (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 3. CAB International and Natural History Museum, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Snyder SD, Loker ES (2000) Evolutionary relationships among the Schistosomatidae (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) and an Asian origin for Schistosoma. J Parasitol 86:283–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Snyder SD (2004) Phylogeny and paraphyly among tetrapod blood flukes (Digenea: Schistosomatidae and Spirorchiidae). Int J Parasitol 34:1385–1392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lockyer AE, Olson PD, Littlewood DTJ (2003) Utility of complete large and small subunit rRNA genes in resolving the phylogeny of the Neodermata (Platyhelminthes): implications and a review of the cercomer theory. Biol J Linn Soc 78:155–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Khalil LF (2002) Family Schistosomatidae. In: Gibson DI, Jones A, Bray RA (eds) Keys to the Trematoda, vol 1. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Aldhoun JA, Littlewood DTJ (2012) Orientobilharzia Dutt & Srivastava, 1955 (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae), a junior synonym of Schistosoma Weinland, 1858. Syst Parasitol 82:81–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mallatt J, Winchell CJ (2002) Testing the new animal phylogeny: first use of combined large-subunit and small subunit rRNA gene sequences to classify the Protostomes. Mol Biol Evol 19:289–301Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lockyer AE, Olson PD, Østergaard P, Rollinson D, Johnston DA, Attwood SW, Southgate VR, Horak P, Snyder SD, Le TH, Agatsuma T, McManus D, Carmichael AC, Naem S, Littlewood DTJ (2003) The phylogeny of the Schistosomatidae based on three genes with emphasis on the interrelationships of Schistosoma Weinland, 1858. Parasitology 126:203–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mallatt JM, Garey JR, Shultz JW (2004) Ecdysozoan phylogeny and Bayesian inference: first use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA gene sequences to classify the arthropods and their kin. Mol Phylogenet Evol 31:178–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mallatt J, Giribet G (2006) Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Mol Phylogenet Evol 40:772–794PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Waeschenbach A, Webster BL, Bray RA, Littlewood DTJ (2007) Added resolution among ordinal level relationships of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) with complete small and large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA genes. Mol Phylogenet Evol 45:311–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Littlewood DTJ (2008) Platyhelminth systematics and the emergence of new characters. Parasite 15:333–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Timmermans MJTN, Dodsworth S, Culverwell CL, Bocak L, Ahrens D, Littlewood DTJ, Pons J, Vogler AP (2010) Why barcode? High-throughput multiplex sequencing of mitochondrial genomes for molecular systematics. Nucleic Acids Res 38:e197PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Philippe H, Brinkmann H, Lavrov DV, Littlewood DTJ, Manuel M, Wörheide G, Baurain D (2011) Resolving difficult phylogenetic questions: Why more sequences are not enough. PLoS Biol 9:e1000602PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Johnston DA (2006) Genomes and genomics of parasitic flatworms. In: Maule AG, Marks NJ (eds) Parasitic flatworms. Molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology and physiology. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Littlewood DTJ, Lockyer AE, Webster BL, Johnston DA, Le TH (2006) The complete mitochondrial genomes of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma spindale and the evolutionary history of mitochondrial genome changes among parasitic flatworms. Mol Phylogenet Evol 39:452–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Le TH, Humair PF, Blair D, Agatsuma T, Littlewood DT, McManus DP (2001) Mitochondrial gene content, arrangement and composition compared in African and Asian schistosomes. Mol Biochem Parasitol 117:61–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Zarowiecki MZ, Huyse T, Littlewood DT (2007) Making the most of mitochondrial genomes-markers for phylogeny, molecular ecology and barcodes in Schistosoma (Platyhelminthes: Digenea). Int J Parasitol 37:1401–1148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lawton SP, Hirai H, Ironside JE, Johnston D, Rollinson D (2011) Genomes and geography: genomic insights into the evolution and phylogeography of the genus Schistosoma. Parasit Vector 4:131CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic
  2. 2.Unitat de Zoologia Marina, Institut Cavanilles de Biodiversitat i Biologia Evolutiva, Parc CientíficValenciaSpain

Personalised recommendations