Advertisement

Communities and Technology: Enhancements in HIV-Prevention Research and Practice Among Adolescents and Young Adults

  • Sheana BullEmail author
  • Tarik Walker
  • Deb Levine
Chapter

Abstract

The burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is disproportionaly high for adolescents and young adults. Adolescents and young people report high rates of sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use. The Internet and, more specifically, online social networks, are beginning to be harnessed as potentially effective and culturally congruent communication channels to reach and engage some communities and populations in HIV-prevention interventions. Rates of social media use tend to be high among adolescents and young adults, in particular; they create, share, and exchange information, ideas, and perspectives in “virtual communities,” including Facebook, MySpace, Ning, FourSquare, Second Life, Tumblr, Twitter, and Instagram. In this chapter, we consider virtual communities and the opportunities that exist for using social media to promote HIV prevention. We then describe the processes of engagement and interaction with members of virtual communities through our own experiences developing, implementing, and evaluating our Just/Us Facebook page intervention.

Keywords

Adolescents Facebook HIV Social media Young adults 

References

  1. 1.
    Rheingold HT. The virtual community: homesteading on the electronic frontier. Reading: Addison-Wesley Publishing; 1993.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gustafson DH, Hawkins RP, Boberg EW, McTavish F, Owens B, Wise M, et al. Chess: 10 years of research and development in consumer health informatics for broad populations, including the underserved. Int J Med Inform. 2002;65(3):169–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Glasgow RE, Boles SM, McKay HG, Feil EG, Barrera M, Jr. The D-Net diabetes self-management program: long-term implementation, outcomes, and generalization results. Prev Med. 2003;36(4):410–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rhodes SD. Hookups or health promotion? An exploratory study of a chat room-based HIV prevention intervention for men who have sex with men. AIDS Educ Prev. 2004;16(4):315–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rhodes SD, Hergenrather KC, Duncan J, Vissman AT, Miller C, Wilkin AM, et al. A pilot intervention utilizing internet chat rooms to prevent HIV risk behaviors among men who have sex with men. Public Health Rep. 2010;125(Suppl 1):29–37.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rhodes SD, Vissman AT, Stowers J, Miller C, McCoy TP, Hergenrather KC, et al. A CBPR partnership increases HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM): outcome findings from a pilot test of the CyBER/testing internet intervention. Health Educ Behav. 2011;38(3):311–20.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gorini A, Gaggioli A, Vigna C, Riva G. A second life for eHealth: prospects for the use of 3-D virtual worlds in clinical psychology. J Med Internet Res. 2008;10(3):e21.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gordon R, Bjorklund NK, Smith RJ, Blyden ER. Halting HIV/AIDS with avatars and havatars: a virtual world approach to modelling epidemics. BMC Public Health. 2009;9 (Suppl 1):S13.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gabarron E, Serrano JA, Wynn R, Armayones M. Avatars using computer/smartphone mediated communication and social networking in prevention of sexually transmitted diseases among North-Norwegian youngsters. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2012;12:120.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pereira C, McNamara A, Sorge L, Arya V. Personalizing public health: your health avatar. J Am Pharm Assoc (JAPhA). 2013;53(2):145–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Roth C, Vermeulen I, Vorderer P, Klimmt C, Pizzi D, Lugrin JL, et al. Playing in or out of character: user role differences in the experience of interactive storytelling. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2012;15(11):630–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lipnack J, Stamps J. Virtual teams: reaching across space, time, and organizations with technology. New York: Wiley; 1997.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rhodes SD, Bowie DA, Hergenrather KC. Collecting behavioural data using the world wide web: considerations for researchers. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003;57(1):68–73.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kraut R, Patterson M, Lundmark V, Kiesler S, Mukopadhyay T, Scherlis W. Internet paradox. A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being? Am Psychol. 1998;53(9):1017–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kaufman M. The internet: a reliable source? Washington Post. 1999; Health Sect. Z17.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shapira NA, Goldsmith TD, Keck PE, Jr., Khosla UM, McElroy SL. Psychiatric features of individuals with problematic internet use. J Affect Disord. 2000;57(1–3):267–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lenhart A, Purcell K, Smith A, Zickuhr K. Social media & mobile technology use among teens and young adults. 2010. http://wwwpewinternetorg/~/media//Files/Reports/2010/PIP_Social_Media_and_Young_Adults_Report_Final_with_toplinespd.
  18. 18.
    Boyar R, Levine D, Zensius N. TECHsex USA: youth sexuality and reproductive health in the digital age. 2011. http://ccasaorg/wp-content/themes/skeleton/documents/Youth-Sexuality-and-Reproductive-Health-in-the-Digital-Agepdf.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tatham M. 15 stats about Facebook. Experian consumer insights. 2012. http://www.experian.com/blogs/marketing-forward/2012/05/16/15-stats-about-facebook/. Accessed: 16 May 2012.
  20. 20.
    Allison S, Bauermeister JA, Bull S, Lightfoot M, Mustanski B, Shegog R, et al. The intersection of youth, technology, and new media with sexual health: moving the research agenda forward. J Adolesc Health. 2012;51(3):207–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bull SS, Levine DK, Black SR, Schmiege SJ, Santelli J. Social media-delivered sexual health intervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Am J Prev Med. 2012;43(5):467–74.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reich SM, Subrahmanyam K, Espinoza G. Friending, IMing, and hanging out face-to-face: overlap in adolescents’ online and offline social networks. Dev Psychol. 2012;48(2):356–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2011; 2013.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Seifer SD, Sisco S. Mining the challenges of CBPR for improvements in urban health. J Urban Health. 2006;83(6):981–4.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moreno MA, Vanderstoep A, Parks MR, Zimmerman FJ, Kurth A, Christakis DA. Reducing at-risk adolescents’ display of risk behavior on a social networking web site: a randomized controlled pilot intervention trial. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009;163(1):35–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gold J, Pedrana AE, Sacks-Davis R, Hellard ME, Chang S, Howard S, et al. A systematic examination of the use of online social networking sites for sexual health promotion. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:583.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ownby RL, Waldrop-Valverde D, Jacobs RJ, Acevedo A, Caballero J. Cost effectiveness of a computer-delivered intervention to improve HIV medication adherence. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2013;13–29.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Horvath KJ, Danilenko GP, Williams ML, Simoni J, Amico KR, Oakes JM, et al. Technology use and reasons to participate in social networking health websites among people living with HIV in the US. AIDS Behav. 2012;16(4):900–10.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Latkin CA, Davey-Rothwell MA, Knowlton AR, Alexander KA, Williams CT, Boodram B. Social network approaches to recruitment, HIV prevention, medical care, and medication adherence. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63(Suppl 1):S54–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nguyen P, Gold J, Pedrana A, Chang S, Howard S, Ilic O, et al. Sexual health promotion on social networking sites: a process evaluation of the FaceSpace project. J Adolesc Health. 2013;53(1):98–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gold J, Pedrana AE, Stoove MA, Chang S, Howard S, Asselin J, et al. Developing health promotion interventions on social networking sites: recommendations from the FaceSpace project. J Med Internet Res. 2012;14(1):e30.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pedrana A, Hellard M, Gold J, Ata N, Chang S, Howard S, et al. Queer as F**k: reaching and engaging gay men in sexual health promotion through social networking sites. J Med Internet Res. 2013;15(2):e25.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bowen AM, Horvath K, Williams ML. A randomized control trial of internet-delivered HIV prevention targeting rural MSM. Health Educ Res. 2007;22(1):120–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fortune T, Wright E, Juzang I, Bull S. Recruitment, enrollment and retention of young black men for HIV prevention research: experiences from The 411 for Safe Text project. Contemp Clin Trials. 2010;31(2):151–6.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Juzang I, Fortune T, Black S, Wright E, Bull S. A pilot programme using mobile phones for HIV prevention. J Telemed Telecare. 2011;17(3):150–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Levine D, McCright J, Dobkin L, Woodruff AJ, Klausner JD. SEXINFO: a sexual health text messaging service for San Francisco youth. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(3):393–5.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hightow-Weidman LB, Fowler B, Kibe J, McCoy R, Pike E, Calabria M, et al. HealthMpowerment.org: development of a theory-based HIV/STI website for young black MSM. AIDS Educ Prev. 2011;23(1):1–12.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hightow-Weidman LB, Pike E, Fowler B, Matthews DM, Kibe J, McCoy R, et al. HealthMpowerment.org: feasibility and acceptability of delivering an internet intervention to young Black men who have sex with men. AIDS Care. 2012;24(7):910–20.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rice E, Lee A, Taitt S. Cell phone use among homeless youth: potential for new health interventions and research. J Urban Health. 2011;88(6):1175–82.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rice E, Rhoades H. How should network-based prevention for homeless youth be implemented? Addiction. 2013;108(9):1625–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rice E, Tulbert E, Cederbaum J, Barman Adhikari A, Milburn NG. Mobilizing homeless youth for HIV prevention: a social network analysis of the acceptability of a face-to-face and online social networking intervention. Health Educ Res. 2012;27(2):226–36.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Young SD, Rice E. Online social networking technologies, HIV knowledge, and sexual risk and testing behaviors among homeless youth. AIDS Behav. 2011;15(2):253–60.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ybarra ML, Bull SS, Prescott TL, Korchmaros JD, Bangsberg DR, Kiwanuka JP. Adolescent abstinence and unprotected sex in CyberSenga, an internet-based HIV prevention program: randomized clinical trial of efficacy. PloS ONE. 2013;8(8):e70083.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ybarra ML, Korchmaros J, Kiwanuka J, Bangsberg DR, Bull S. Examining the applicability of the IMB model in predicting condom use among sexually active secondary school students in Mbarara, Uganda. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(3):1116–28.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Levine D, Madsen A, Wright E, Barar RE, Santelli J, Bull S. Formative research on MySpace: online methods to engage hard-to-reach populations. J Health Commun. 2011;16(4):448–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Heckathorn DD. Respondent-driven sampling: a new approach to the study of hidden populations. Soc Problems. 1997;44(2):174–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ramirez-Valles J, Garcia D, Campbell RT, Diaz RM, Heckathorn DD. HIV infection, sexual risk behavior, and substance use among Latino gay and bisexual men and transgender persons. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(6):1036–42.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rhodes SD, McCoy TP, Hergenrather KC, Vissman AT, Wolfson M, Alonzo J, et al. Prevalence estimates of health risk behaviors of immigrant Latino men who have sex with men. J Rural Health. 2012;28(1):73–83.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zoomerang. Zoomerang Privacy Policy. 2012. http://www.zoomerangcom/.
  50. 50.
    Institute of Medicine. Unequal treatment: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington: National Academy Press; 2003.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Tindana PO, Singh JA, Tracy CS, Upshur RE, Daar AS, Singer PA, et al. Grand challenges in global health: community engagement in research in developing countries. PLoS Med. 2007;4(9):e273.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rhodes SD, Malow RM, Jolly C. Community-based participatory research: a new and not-so-new approach to HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment. AIDS Educ Prev. 2010;22(3):173–83.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cashman SB, Adeky S, Allen AJ, Corburn J, Israel BA, Montaño J, et al. The power and the promise: working with communities to analyze data, interpret findings, and get to outcomes. Am J Public Health. 2008;98(8):1407–17.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Israel BA, Krieger J, Vlahov D, Ciske S, Foley M, Fortin P, et al. Challenges and facilitating factors in sustaining community-based participatory research partnerships: lessons learned from the Detroit, New York City and Seattle Urban Research Centers. J Urban Health. 2006;83(6):1022–40.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rhodes SD, Duck S, Alonzo J, Downs M, Aronson RE. Intervention trials in community-based participatory research. In: Blumenthal D, DiClemente RJ, Braithwaite RL, Smith S, editors. Community-based participatory research: issues, methods, and translation to practice. New York: Springer; 2013. p. 157–80.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rhodes SD, Duck S, Alonzo J, Daniel J, Aronson RE. Using community-based participatory research to prevent HIV disparities: assumptions and opportunities identified by The Latino Partnership. J Acquir Immune Syndr. 2013;63(Suppl 1):S32–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Viswanathan M, Eng E, Ammerman A, Gartlehner G, Lohr KN, Griffith D, et al. Community-based participatory research: assessing the evidence. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2004 July. Report No.: 99.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Moreno MA, Fost NC, Christakis DA. Research ethics in the MySpace era. Pediatrics. 2008;121(1):157–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Chiasson MA, Shaw FS, Humberstone M, Hirshfield S, Hartel D. Increased HIV disclosure three months after an online video intervention for men who have sex with men (MSM). AIDS Care. 2009;21(9):1081–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Radwanick S. Facebook blasts into top position in Brazilian social networking market following year of tremendous growth. 2013. http://www.comscore.com/Insights/Press_Releases/2012/1/Facebook_Blasts_into_Top_Position_in_Brazilian_Social_Networking_Market.
  61. 61.
    Kelly JA, St Lawrence JS, Stevenson LY, Hauth AC, Kalichman SC, Diaz YE, et al. Community AIDS/HIV risk reduction: the effects of endorsements by popular people in three cities. Am J Public Health. 1992;82(11):1483–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    NPR Staff. We ask the pros: should you friend your boss on Facebook?. 2012. http://wwwnprorg/blogs/alltechconsidered/2012/05/21/153213289/we-ask-the-pros-should-you-friend-your-boss-on-facebook. Accessed: 21 May 2012.
  63. 63.
    Christakis NA, Fowler JH. The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(4):370–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Klesges LM, Estabrooks PA, Dzewaltowski DA, Bull SS, Glasgow RE. Beginning with the application in mind: designing and planning health behavior change interventions to enhance dissemination. Ann Behav Med. 2005;29(Suppl):66–75.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Riley WT, Glasgow RE, Etheredge L, Abernethy AP. Rapid, responsive, relevant (R3) research: a call for a rapid learning health research enterprise. Clin Transl Med. 2013;2(1):10.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Bennett GG, Glasgow RE. The delivery of public health interventions via the Internet: actualizing their potential. Annu Rev Public Health. 2009;30:273–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Rosser BR, Miner MH, Bockting WO, Ross MW, Konstan J, Gurak L, et al. HIV risk and the Internet: results of the Men’s INTernet Sex (MINTS) study. AIDS Behav. 2009;13(4):746–56.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rosser BRS, Gurak L, Horvath KJ, Oakes JM, Konstan J, Danilenko G. The challenges of ensuring participant consent in Internet-based sex studies: a case study of the Men’s INTernet Sex (MINTS-I and II) studies. J Comput Mediat Commun. 2009;14:602–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bull SS, Vallejos D, Levine D, Ortiz C. Improving recruitment and retention for an online randomized controlled trial: experience from the Youthnet study. AIDS Care. 2008;20(8):887–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Bull S, Pratte K, Whitesell N, Rietmeijer C, McFarlane M. Effects of an Internet-based intervention for HIV prevention: the Youthnet trials. AIDS Behav. 2009;13(3):474–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Noar SM, Black HG, Pierce LB. Efficacy of computer technology-based HIV prevention interventions: a meta-analysis. AIDS. 2009;23(1):107–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Community and Behavioral Health, Colorado School of Public HealthUniversity of Colorado DenverAuroraUSA
  2. 2.Department of Family Medicine and Colorado Area Health Education CenterUniversity of ColoradoAuroraUSA
  3. 3.Youth Tech Health (YTH)OaklandUSA

Personalised recommendations