The Enteric Nervous System and Gastrointestinal Innervation: Integrated Local and Central Control

  • John B. FurnessEmail author
  • Brid P. Callaghan
  • Leni R. Rivera
  • Hyun-Jung Cho
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 817)


The digestive system is innervated through its connections with the central nervous system (CNS) and by the enteric nervous system (ENS) within the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. The ENS works in concert with CNS reflex and command centers and with neural pathways that pass through sympathetic ganglia to control digestive function. There is bidirectional information flow between the ENS and CNS and between the ENS and sympathetic prevertebral ganglia.

The ENS in human contains 200–600 million neurons, distributed in many thousands of small ganglia, the great majority of which are found in two plexuses, the myenteric and submucosal plexuses. The myenteric plexus forms a continuous network that extends from the upper esophagus to the internal anal sphincter. Submucosal ganglia and connecting fiber bundles form plexuses in the small and large intestines, but not in the stomach and esophagus. The connections between the ENS and CNS are carried by the vagus and pelvic nerves and sympathetic pathways. Neurons also project from the ENS to prevertebral ganglia, the gallbladder, pancreas and trachea.

The relative roles of the ENS and CNS differ considerably along the digestive tract. Movements of the striated muscle esophagus are determined by neural pattern generators in the CNS. Likewise the CNS has a major role in monitoring the state of the stomach and, in turn, controlling its contractile activity and acid secretion, through vago-vagal reflexes. In contrast, the ENS in the small intestine and colon contains full reflex circuits, including sensory neurons, interneurons and several classes of motor neuron, through which muscle activity, transmucosal fluid fluxes, local blood flow and other functions are controlled. The CNS has control of defecation, via the defecation centers in the lumbosacral spinal cord. The importance of the ENS is emphasized by the life-threatening effects of some ENS neuropathies. By contrast, removal of vagal or sympathetic connections with the gastrointestinal tract has minor effects on GI function. Voluntary control of defecation is exerted through pelvic connections, but cutting these connections is not life-threatening and other functions are little affected.


Lower Esophageal Sphincter Enteric Nervous System Myenteric Plexus Enteric Neuron Myenteric Neuron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.





Adenosine triphosphate


Cervical afferents


Calcitonin gene related peptide


Circular muscle


Central nervous system


Dorsal root ganglia

EEC cell

Enteroendocrine cell


Enteric nervous system


Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential


Gut associated lymphoid tissue




Glucagon-like peptide 2


Interstitial cells of Cajal


Intestinofugal neurons


Intraganglionic laminar endings


Intramuscular arrays


Intrinsic Sensory Neurons (or intrinsic primary afferent neurons)


Lower esophageal sphincter


Longitudinal muscle


Migrating myoelectric complexes


Myenteric plexus




National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia


Nitric oxide


Neuropeptide Y


Prevertebral ganglia


Sympathetic chain ganglia


Sodium/glucose linked transporter


Submucosal plexus


Thyrotropin-releasing hormone


Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1


Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide


Visceromotor Reflex



Research in the authors’ laboratories is supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC). LRR is supported by a NHMRC post-doctoral fellowship.


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Copyright information

© Springer New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • John B. Furness
    • 1
    Email author
  • Brid P. Callaghan
    • 1
  • Leni R. Rivera
    • 1
  • Hyun-Jung Cho
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy and NeuroscienceUniversity of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

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