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Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Cognitive Function

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (MICENDO,volume 817)

Abstract

Recent studies have demonstrated a clear association between changes in the microbiota and cognitive behavior. Intestinal dysbiosis, as modeled using GF mice (containing no microbiota), bacterial infection with an enteric pathogen, and administration of probiotics, can modulate cognitive behavior including learning and memory. This chapter will highlight recent findings in both human and animal studies indicating how changes in the composition and diversity of the microbiota can impact behavior and brain physiology in both disease states and in health. Cognitive behavior can not only be affected in cases of intestinal disease, but also manifests changes in extra-intestinal disease conditions.

Keywords

  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome
  • Hepatic Encephalopathy
  • Intestinal Microbiota
  • Maternal Separation

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Fig. 16.1

Abbreviations

5-HT:

Serotonin

ANS:

Autonomic nervous system

BDNF:

Brain derived neurotropic factor

CD:

Crohn’s disease

CREB:

cAMP response element binding protein

CRF:

Corticotrophin-releasing factor

DA:

Dopamine

DLPFC:

Dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex

EPSP:

Excitatory postsynaptic potential

GF:

Germ-free

GI:

gastrointestinal

HE:

Hepatic encephalopathy

HPA:

Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal

IBD:

Inflammatory bowel disease

IBS:

Irritable bowel syndrome

LPS:

Lipopolysaccharide

MS:

Maternal separation

NGF:

Nerve growth factor

PAMPs:

pathogen associated molecular patterns

PGN:

Peptidoglycan

SPF:

Specific pathogen free

UC:

Ulcerative colitis

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Gareau, M.G. (2014). Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Cognitive Function. In: Lyte, M., Cryan, J. (eds) Microbial Endocrinology: The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology(), vol 817. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0897-4_16

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