Social Categories Create and Reflect Inequality: Psychological and Sociological Insights

  • Michael S. North
  • Susan T. Fiske


Social categories both create and reflect inequality. Macro, overarching forces, and individual, perceiver biases each contribute. First, we review perspectives deriving from classic sociological and prevailing psychological social psychology, including both interpersonal fluidity and cognitive economy. Social psychologists have implicated several specific categories in social inequality. We then discuss the two that have garnered the most focus (race and gender), and next the less-studied ones (age disability, sexuality, social class, and weight). Afterward, we focus on a theory that ties together all these categories, the stereotype content model. Other structural, group-based hierarchy perspectives compliment these perspectives. Broader perspectives from social cognition highlight how categories are often automatic, at times ambiguous and ambivalent, often complex, and ultimately driven by stereotype content and sociostructural forces. Clearly much remains for social psychologists interested in hierarchy.


Social psychology Inequality Social categories Prejudice Stereotype Emotions Structural tensions 


  1. Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychological Association. (1967/2012). PsycINFO [Online]. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  3. Ballew, C. C., & Todorov, A. (2007). Predicting political elections from rapid and unreflective face judgments. Proceedings of the National Academic of Sciences of the U S A, 104, 17948–17953.Google Scholar
  4. Bar, M., Neta, M., & Linz, H. (2006). Very first impressions. Emotion, 6, 269–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bargh, J. A., Bond, R. N., Lombardi, W. J., & Tota, M. E. (1986). The additive nature of chronic and temporary sources of construct accessibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 869–879.Google Scholar
  6. Becker, E. (1973). The denial of death. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  7. Berger, J., Cohen, B. P., & Zeldich, M. Jr. (1972). Status characteristics and social interaction. American Sociological Review, 37, 241–255.Google Scholar
  8. Bodenhausen, G. V., & Peery, D. (2009). Social categorization and stereotyping in vivo: The VUCA challenge. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3, 133–151.Google Scholar
  9. Bogardus, E. S. (1933). A social distance scale. Sociology and Social Research, 17, 265–271.Google Scholar
  10. Brewer, M. B. (1988). A dual process model of impression formation. In T. K. Srull & R. S. Wyer Jr. (Eds.), Advances in social cognition (Vol. 1, pp. 1–36). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  11. Brewer, M. B. (1999). The psychology of prejudice: Ingroup love or outgroup hate? Journal of Social Issues, 55, 429–444.Google Scholar
  12. Brewer, M. B., & Harasty Feinstein, A. S. (1999). Dual processes in the cognitive representation of persona and social categories. In S. Chaiken & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 255–270). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  13. Brewer, M. B., Dull, V., & Lui, L. (1981). Perceptions of the elderly: Stereotypes as prototypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 656–670.Google Scholar
  14. Burgess, D., & Borgida, E. (1999). Who women are, who women should be: Descriptive and prescriptive gender stereotyping in sex discrimination. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 5, 665–692.Google Scholar
  15. Carli, L. L., & Eagly, A. H. (1999). Gender effects on influence and emergent leadership. In G. N. Powell (Ed.), Handbook of gender and work (pp. 203–222). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  16. Chang, C., & Hitchon, J. C. B. (2004). When does gender count? Further insights into gender schematic processing or female candidates’ political advertisements. Sex Roles, 51, 197–208.Google Scholar
  17. Cikara, M., & Fiske, S. T. (2012). Stereotypes and Schadenfreude: Behavioral and physiological markers of pleasure at others’ misfortunes. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 63–71.Google Scholar
  18. Clausell, E., & Fiske, S. T. (2005). When do the parts add up to the whole? Ambivalent stereotype content for gay male subgroups. Social Cognition, 23, 157–176.Google Scholar
  19. Cohen, G., Purdie-Vaughns, V., & Garcia, J. (2012). An identity threat perspective on intervention. In M. Inzlicht & T. Schmader (Eds.), Stereotype threat: Theory, process, and application (pp. 280–296). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Correll, J., Park, B., Judd, C. M., Wittenbrink, B., Sadler, M. S., & Keesee, T. (2007). Across the thin blue line: Police offers and racial bias in the decision to shoot. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 1006–1023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cottrell, C. A., & Neuberg, S. L. (2005). Different emotional reactions to different groups: A sociofunctional threat-based approach to “prejudice.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 770–789.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Crandall, C. S. (1994). Prejudice against fat people: Ideology and self-interest. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 882–894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Crandall, C. S., & Biernat, M. (1990). The ideology of anti-fat attitudes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 227–243.Google Scholar
  24. Crandall, C. S., & Moriarty, D. (1995). Physical illness stigma and social rejection. British Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 67–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Crandall, C. S., D’Anello, S., Sakalli, N., Lazarus, E., Wieczorkowska Nejtardt, G., & Feather, N. T. (2001). An attribution-value model of prejudice: Anti-fat attitudes in six nations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 30–37.Google Scholar
  26. Cuddy, A. J. C., & Fiske, S. T. (2002). Doddering but dear: Process, content, and function in stereotyping of older persons. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons (pp. 3–26). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  27. Cuddy, A. J. C., Norton, M. I., & Fiske, S. T. (2005). This old stereotype: The pervasiveness and persistence of the elderly stereotype. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 267–285.Google Scholar
  28. Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., & Glick, P. (2007). The BIAS map: Behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 631–648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cuddy, A. J. C., Fiske, S. T., Kwan, V. S. Y., Glick, P., Demoulin, S., Leyens, J.-Ph, Bond, M. H., Croizet, J.-C., Ellemers, N., Sleebos, E., Htun, T. T., Yamamoto, M., Kim, H.-J., Maio, G., Perry, J., Petkova, K., Todorov, V., Rodríguez-Bailón, R., Morales, E., Moya, M., Palacios, M., Smith, V., Perez, R., Vala, J., & Ziegler, R. (2009). Stereotype content model across cultures: Towards universal similarities and some differences. British Journal of Social Psychology, 48, 1–33.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dahrendorf, R. (1968). Essays in the theory of society. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Darley, J. M., & Fazio, R. H. (1980). Expectancy confirmation processes arising in the social interaction sequence. American Psychologist, 35, 867–881.Google Scholar
  32. Deaux, K. (1984). From individual differences to social categories: Analysis of a decade’s research on gender. American Psychologist, 39, 105–116.Google Scholar
  33. Deaux, K., & Major, B. (1987). Putting gender into context: An interactive model of gender-related behavior. Psychological Review, 94, 369–389.Google Scholar
  34. Deaux, K., Winton, W., Crowley, M., & Lewis, L. L. (1985). Levels of categorization and content of gender stereotypes. Social Cognition, 3, 145–167.Google Scholar
  35. Devine, P. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 5–18.Google Scholar
  36. Dovidio, J. F., Evans, N., & Tyler, R. B. (1986). Racial stereotypes: The contents of their cognitive representations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22, 22–37.Google Scholar
  37. Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (2000). Aversive racism and selection decisions: 1989 and 1999. Psychological Science, 11, 315–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dovidio, J. F., Kawakami, K., & Gaertner, S. L. (2002). Implicit and explicit prejudice and interracial interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 62–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Durante, F., Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., Kervyn, N., et al. (2012). Nations’ income inequality predicts ambivalence in stereotype content: How societies mind the gap. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52, 726–746.Google Scholar
  40. Durkheim, E. (1893/1964). The division of labor in society. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  41. Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  42. Eagly, A. H., & Fine, G. A. (2010). Bridging social psychologies: An introduction. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73, 313–357.Google Scholar
  43. Eagly, A. H., & Karau, S. J. (2002). Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders. Psychological Review, 109, 573–598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Eagly, A. H., Karau, S., & Makhijani, M. (1995). Gender and effectiveness of leaders: A meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 117, 125–145.Google Scholar
  45. Eberhardt, J. L., Goff, P. A., Purdie, V. J., & Davies, P. G. (2004). Seeing black: Race, crime, and visual processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 876–893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Eberhardt, J. L., Davies, P. G., Purdie-Vaughns, V. J., & Johnson, S. L. (2006). Looking deathworthy: Perceived stereotypicality of Black defnedancts predicts capital-sentencing outcomes. Psychological Science, 17, 382–386.Google Scholar
  47. Eckes, T. (2002). Paternalistc and envious gender stereotypes: Testing predictions from the stereotype content model. Sex Roles, 47, 99–114.Google Scholar
  48. European Social Survey, Round 4 Data. (2008). Data file edition 4.0. Norway: Norwegian Social Science Data Services, Data Archive and Distributor of ESS Data.Google Scholar
  49. Fiske, S. T. (1998). Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  50. Fiske, S. T. (2002). What we know now about bias and intergroup conflict, problem of the century. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 123–128.Google Scholar
  51. Fiske, S. T. (2011). Envy up, scorn down: How status divides us. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  52. Fiske, S. T., & Molm, L. D. (2010). Bridging inequality from both sides now. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73, 341–346PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Fiske, S. T., & Neuberg, S. L. (1990). A continuum of impression formation, from category-based to individuating processes: Influences of information and motivation on attention and interpretation. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 1–74). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  54. Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (2013). Social cognition: From brains to culture. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  55. Fiske, S. T., Neuberg, S. L., Beattie, A. E., & Milberg, S. J. (1987). Category-based and attribute-based reactions to others: Some informational conditions of stereotyping and individuating processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 23, 399–427.Google Scholar
  56. Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J., Glick, P., & Xu, J. (2002). A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 878–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J. C., & Glick, P. (2007). Universal dimensions of social perception: Warmth and competence. Trends in Cognitive Science, 11, 77–83.Google Scholar
  58. Fiske, S. T., Bergsieker, H., Russell, A. M., & Williams, L. (2009). Images of Black Americans: Then, “them” and now, “Obama!” DuBois Review: Social Science Research on Race, 6, 83–101.Google Scholar
  59. Foner, A. (1979). Ascribed and achieved bases of stratification. Annual Review of Sociology, 5, 219–242.Google Scholar
  60. Gaertner, S. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (1986). The aversive form of racism. In J. F. Dovidio & S. L. Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, discrimination, and racism. Orlando: Academic.Google Scholar
  61. Garstka, T. A., Schmitt, M. T., Branscombe, N. R., & Hummert, M. L. (2004). How young and older adults differ in their responses to perceived age discrimination. Psychology and Aging, 19, 326–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Garstka, T. A., Hummert, M. L., & Branscombe, N. R. (2005). Perceiving age discrimination in response to intergenerational inequity. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 321–342.Google Scholar
  63. Glenn, E. N. (1999). The social construction and institutionalization of gender and race: An integrative framework. In M. M. Ferree, J. Lorber, & B. B. Hess (Eds.), Revisioning gender (pp. 3–43). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  64. Glick, P., & Fiske, S. T. (1996). The ambivalent sexism inventory: Differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 491–512.Google Scholar
  65. Goffman, E. (1972). Encounters: Two studies in the sociology of interaction. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  66. Greenberg, J., Schimel, J., & Martens, A. (2002). Ageism: Denying the face of the future. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons (pp. 27–48). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  67. Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464–1480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Greenwald, A. G., Banaji, M. R., Rudman, L. A., Farnham, S. D., Nosek, B. A., & Mellott, D. S. (2002). A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept. Psychological Review, 109, 3–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Harris, L. T., & Fiske, S. T. (2006). Dehumanizing the lowest of the low: Neuro-imaging responses to extreme outgroups. Psychological Science, 17, 847–853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Hegarty, P. (2002). ‘It’s not a choice, it’s the way we’re built’: Symbolic beliefs about sexual orientation in the US and Britain. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 12, 153–166.Google Scholar
  71. Herek, G. M. (1987). Can functions be measured? A new perspective on the functional approach to attitudes. Social Psychology Quarterly, 50, 285–303.Google Scholar
  72. Herek, G. M. (2000). The psychology of sexual prejudice. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 19–22.Google Scholar
  73. Herek, G. M., & Capitanio, J. (1996). “Some of my best friends”: Intergroup contact, concealable stigma, and heterosexuals’ attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 412–424.Google Scholar
  74. Herek, G. M., & McLemore, K. A. (2013). Sexual prejudice. Annual Review of Psychology , 64, 309–333.Google Scholar
  75. Higgins, E. T., & King, G. A. (1981). Accessibility of social constructs: Information-processing consequences of individual and contextual variability. In N. Cantor & J. F. Kihlstrom (Eds.), Personality, cognition, and social interaction (pp. 69–122). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  76. Higgins, E. T., Rholes, W. S., & Jones, C. R. (1977). Category accessibility and impression formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 141–154.Google Scholar
  77. Ingraham, C. (1994). The heterosexual imaginary: Feminist sociology and theories of gender. Sociological theory, 12, 203–219.Google Scholar
  78. Ito, T. A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2000). Electrophysiological evidence of implicit and explicit categorization processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 660–676.Google Scholar
  79. Ito, T. A., & Urland, G. R. (2003). Race and gender on the brain: Electrocortical measures of attention to the race and gender of multiply categorizable individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 616–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Ito, T. A., Larsen, J. T., Smith, K. N., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1998). Negative information weights more heavily on the brain: The negativity bias in evaluative categorizations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 887–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Jost, J. T., & Banaji, M. R. (1994). The role of stereotyping in system-justification and the production of false consciousness. British Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 1–27.Google Scholar
  82. Jost, J. T., Banaji, M. R., & Nosek, B. A. (2004). A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo. Political Psychology, 25, 881–919.Google Scholar
  83. Katz, D., & Braly, K. (1933). Racial stereotypes of one hundred college students. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 28, 280–290.Google Scholar
  84. Katz, I., Wackenhunt, J., & Hass, R. G. (1986). Racial ambivalence, value duality, and behavior. In J. F. Dovidio & S. L. Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice discrimination, and racism (pp. 35–59). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  85. Kite, M. E., & Wagner, L. S. (2002). Attitudes toward older adults. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Ageism (pp. 129–161). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  86. Kite, M., Deaux, K., & Miele, M. (1991). Stereotypes of young and old: Does age outweigh gender? Psychology and Aging, 6, 19–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kleck, R., Ono, H., & Hastorf, A. H. (1966). The effects of physical deviance upon face-to-face interaction. Human Relations, 19, 425.Google Scholar
  88. Krendl, A. C., Macrae, C. N., Kelley, W. M., Fugelsang, J. A., & Heatherton, T. F. (2006). The good, the bad, and the ugly: An fMRI investigation of the functional anatomic correlates of stigma. Social Neuroscience, 1, 5–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kugler, M. B., Cooper, J., & Nosek, B. (2010). Group-based dominance and opposition to equality correspond to different psychological motives. Social Justice Research, 23, 117–155.Google Scholar
  90. Kunda, Z. (1999). Social cognition. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  91. Langer, E. J., Fiske, S. T., Taylor, S. E., & Chanowitz, B. (1976). Stigma, starting, and discomfort: A novel-stimulus hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 12, 451–463.Google Scholar
  92. Lieberson, S. (2001). Understanding ascriptive stratification: Some issues and principles. In D. B. Grusky (Ed.), Social stratification: Class, race, and gender in sociological perspective (pp. 781–790). Boulder: Westview.Google Scholar
  93. Linville, P. W., & Jones, E. E. (1980). Polarized appraisals of out-group members. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 689–703.Google Scholar
  94. Macrae, C. N., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2000). Social cognition: Thinking categorically about others. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 93–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Macrae, C. N., Hood, B. M., Milne, A. B., Rowe, A. C., & Mason, M. F. (2005). Are you looking at me? Eye gaze and person perception. Psychological Science, 13, 460–464.Google Scholar
  96. Maddox, K. B., & Gray, S. A. (2002). Cognitive representations of Black Americans: Reexploring the role of skin tone. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 250–259.Google Scholar
  97. Massey, D. S. (2007). Categorically unequal: The American stratification system. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  98. Merton, R. K. (1948). The self-fulfilling prophecy. The Antioch Review, 8, 193–210.Google Scholar
  99. Moscovici, S. (1963). Attitudes and opinions. Annual Review of Psychology, 14, 231–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Nelson, T. D. (2005). Ageism: Prejudice against our feared future self. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 207–221.Google Scholar
  101. Neugarten, B. L. (1974). Age groups in American society and the rise of the young-old. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 415, 187–198.Google Scholar
  102. Nisbett, R. E. (2009). Intelligence and how to get it: Why schools and cultures count. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  103. North, M. S., & Fiske, S. T. (2012). An inconvenienced youth? Ageism and its potential intergenerational roots. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 982–997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. North, M. S., & Fiske, S. T. (2013a). Act your (old) age: Prescriptive, ageist biases over succession, identity, and consumption. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 720–734.Google Scholar
  105. North, M. S., & Fiske, S. T. (2013b). Subtyping ageism: Policy issues in succession and consumption. Social Issues and Policy Review, 7, 36–57.Google Scholar
  106. Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R., & Greenwald, A. G. (2002). Harvesting implicit group attitudes and beliefs from a demonstration website. Group Dynamics, 6, 101–115.Google Scholar
  107. Nosek, B. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). The implicit association test at age 7: A methodological and conceptual review. In J. A. Bargh (Ed.), Social psychology and the unconscious: The automaticity of mental processes (pp. 265–292). New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  108. Oishi, S., Kesebir, S., & Snyder, B. H. (2009). Sociology: A lost connection in social psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 13, 334–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Oldmeadow, J., & Fiske, S. T. (2007). Ideology moderates status = competence stereotypes: Roles for belief in a just world and social dominance orientation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 1135–1148.Google Scholar
  110. Oosterhof, N. N., & Todorov, A. (2008). The functional basis of face evaluation. Proceedings of the National Academic of Sciences of the U S A, 105, 11087–11092.Google Scholar
  111. Pager, D. (2007). Marked: Race, crime, and finding work in an era of mass incarceration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  112. Pager, D., Western, B., & Bonikowski, B. (2009). Discrimination in a low-wage labor market: A field experiment. American Sociological Review, 74, 777–799.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Palmore, E. (2003). Ageism comes of age. The Gerontologist, 43, 418–420.Google Scholar
  114. Parsons, T., & Bales, R. F. (1955). Family, socialization, and interaction process. Glencoe: Free Press.Google Scholar
  115. Payne, K. B. (2001). Prejudice and perception: The role of automatic and controlled processes in misperceiving a weapon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 181–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Pettigrew, T. F., & Meertens, R. W. (1995). Subtle and blatant prejudice in Western Europe. European Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 57–75.Google Scholar
  117. Potter, J., & Wetherell, M. (1998). Social representations, discourse analysis, and racism. In U. Flick (Ed.), The psychology of the social (pp. 138–155). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  118. Pratto, F., Sidanius, J., Stallworth, L. M., & Malle, B. F. (1994). Social dominance orientation: A personality variable predicting social and political attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 741–763.Google Scholar
  119. Pratto, F., Stallworth, L. M., Sidanius, J., & Siers, B. (1997). The gender gap in occupational role attainment: A social dominance approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 37–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Prentice, D. A., & Carranza, E. (2002). What women and men should be, shouldn’t be, are allowed to be, and don’t have to be: The contents of prescriptive gender stereotypes. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26, 269–281.Google Scholar
  121. Ridgeway, C. (1991). The social construction of status value: Gender and other nominal characteristics. Social Forces, 70, 367–386.Google Scholar
  122. Rudman, L. A. (1998). Self-promotion as a risk factor for women: The costs and benefits of counter stereotypical impression management. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 629–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Rudman, L. A., & Glick, P. (2001). Prescriptive gender stereotypes and backlash toward agentic women. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 743–762.Google Scholar
  124. Russell, A. M., & Fiske, S. T. (2008). It’s all relative: Social position and interpersonal perception. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 1193–1201.Google Scholar
  125. Russell, A. M., & Fiske, S. T. (under review). A tale of two paupers: Polarized perception of the poor.Google Scholar
  126. Schmidt, D. F., & Boland, S. M. (1986). Structure of perceptions of older adults: Evidence for multiple stereotypes. Psychology and Aging, 1, 255–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Schwartz, M. B., O’Neal Chambliss, H., Brownell, K. D., Blair, S. N., & Billington, C. (2003). Weight bias among health professionals specializing in obesity. Obesity Research, 11, 1033–1039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Shelton, J. N., & Richeson, J. A. (2006). Interracial interactions: A relational approach. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 121–181). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  129. Sherman, D. K., Hartson, K. A., Binning, K. R., Purdie-Vaughns, V., Garcia, J., Taborsky-Barba, S., & Cohen, G. L. (2013). Deflecting the trajectory and changing the narrative: How self-affirmation affects academic performance and motivation under identity threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104, 591–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Sidanius, J., & Pratto, F. (1999). Social dominance: An intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  131. Smedley, A., & Smedley, B. D. (2005). Race as biology is fiction, racism as a social problem is real: Anthropological and historical perspectives on the social construction of race. American Psychologist, 60, 16–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Snizek, W. E., & Neil, C. C. (1992). Job characteristics, gender stereotypes and perceived gender discrimination in the workplace. Organizational Studies, 13, 403–427.Google Scholar
  133. Snyder, M., & Swann, W. B. (1978). Behavioral confirmation in social interaction: From social perception to social reality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 14, 148–162.Google Scholar
  134. Spence, J. T., Helmreich, R., & Stapp, J. (1973). A short version of the Attitudes toward Women Scale (AWS). Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 2, 219–220.Google Scholar
  135. Spence, J. T., Helmreich, R., & Stapp, J. (1975). Ratings of self and peers on sex role attributes and relation to self-esteem and conceptions of masculinity and femininity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 29–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Stangor, C., Lynch, L., Duan, C., & Glass, B. (1992). Categorization of individuals on the basis of multiple social features. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 207–218.Google Scholar
  137. Stein, A., & Plummer, K. (1994). “I can’t even think straight”: “Queer” theory and the missing sexual revolution in sociology. Sociological Theory, 12, 178–187.Google Scholar
  138. Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., Markus, H. R., Johnson, C., & Covarrubias, R. (in-press). Unseen disadvantage: How American universities’ focus on independence undermines the academic performance of first-generation college students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 1178–1197.Google Scholar
  139. Swim, J. J., Aikin, K. J., Hall, W. S., & Hunter, B. A. (1995). Sexism and racism: Old-fashioned and modern prejudices. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 199–214.Google Scholar
  140. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 94–109). Monterey: Brooks-Cole.Google Scholar
  141. Thurstone, L. L. (1928). An experimental study of nationality preferences. Journal of General Psychology, 1, 405–425.Google Scholar
  142. Todorov, A., Mandisodza, A. N., Goren, A., & Hall, C. C. (2005). Inferences of competence from faces predict election outcomes. Science, 308, 1623–1626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Tougas, F., Brown, R., Beaton, A. M., & Joly, S. (1995). Neo-sexism: Plus ca change, plus c’est pareil. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 842–849.Google Scholar
  144. Weber, R., & Crocker, J. (1983). Cognitive processes in the revision of stereotypic beliefs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 961–977.Google Scholar
  145. Weiner, B., Perry, R. P., & Magnusson, J. (1988). An attributional analysis of reactions to stigmas. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 738–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  147. Winant, H. (2000). Race and race theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 169–185.Google Scholar
  148. Word, C. O., Zanna, M. P., & Cooper, J. (1974). The nonverbal mediation of self-fulfilling prophecies in interracial interaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 109–120.Google Scholar
  149. Zárate, M. A., & Smith, E. R. (1990). Person categorization and stereotyping. Social Cognition, 8, 161–185.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyPrinceton UniversityPrincetonUSA

Personalised recommendations