The Regenerative Potential of the Vertebrate Retina: Lessons from the Zebrafish

Chapter
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)

Abstract

The regenerative potential, forward/reverse genetic capabilities and technical advantages of the zebrafish make it an ideal model for studying signals and mechanisms that drive retinal regeneration. Here, we describe the different cellular sources of regeneration in zebrafish, with a particular emphasis on Müller glia cells, as well as the individual signalling pathways that specifically co-ordinate the different phases of regeneration. Because the same cells are also generated developmentally, a comparison between developmental and regenerative processes is of particular benefit to identify the extent to which we can drive developmental mechanisms to improve adult regenerative responses. Given the recent identification of many conserved signalling pathways using zebrafish developmental studies, we can now use this model system to assess their involvement during regeneration. Finally, identifying similarities and differences between zebrafish and amniotic vertebrates allows us to distinguish between the intrinsic capacity and extrinsic signals that can improve regeneration. Thus, we aim to highlight data obtained from the zebrafish vertebrate model and how this information can and has contributed to and directed mammalian research.

Keywords

Migration Adenosine Retina Coherence NMDA 

Abbreviations

ADP

Adenosine diphosphate

Ascl1a

Achaete-scute complex like 1a

Atoh7

Atonal homolog 7

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

bHLH

Basic helix loop helix

Bmp

Bone morphogenetic protein

Brn3b

Brain-specific homeobox 3b

CGZ

Circumferential germinal zone

Chx10

Ceh-10 homeodomain containing homolog

CMZ

Ciliary margin zone

CNTF

Ciliary neurotrophic factor

Crx

Cone rod homeobox

Dkk1b

Dickkopf 1b

Dll1

Delta-like 1

Dpi

Days post-injury

Drgal1-L2

β-Galactoside-binding protein galectin 1-like 2

ERG

Electroretinogram

Fgf8

Fibroblast growth factor 8

FoxN4

Forkhead box N4

Fzd2

Frizzled 2

Gap43

Growth-associated protein 43

GCL

Ganglion cell layer

GFAP

Glial fibrillary acidic protein

GSK-3β

Glycogen synthase kinase-3β

HB-EGF

Heparin-binding epidermal like growth factor

Hes5

Hairy and enhancer of split 5

Hpi

Hours post-injury

Hspd1

Heat shock 60-kDa protein 1

Id2a

Inhibitory of differentiation 2

IgF

Insulin growth factor

IKNM

Interkinetic nuclear migration

INL

Inner nuclear layer

Insm1a

Insulinoma-associated 1a

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

Mcm

Minichromosome maintenance protein

Mps1

Monopolar spindle 1

Ngn1

Neurogenin 1

NMDA

N-methyl-d-aspartate

Oct4

Octamer-binding transcription factor 4

Olig2

Oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2

ONL

Outer nuclear layer

Pax6

Paired box 6

PCNA

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen

PDGFA

Platelet-derived growth factor A

Rac1

Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1

Shh/Hh

Sonic hedgehog/Hedgehog

Six3b

Sine-oculis homeobox homolog 3b

Sox2

Sex determining region Y-box 2

Stat3

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3

TGFβ

Transforming growth factor beta

Tgif1

Transforming growth interacting factor

TNFα

Tumour necrosis factor alpha

Trb

Thyroid hormone receptor β

Tuba1a/α1T

α1-Tubulin

UAS

Upstream activating sequence

Vsx1/Vsx2

Visual homeobox transcription factors 1 and 2

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are extremely grateful to Alexandra D. Almeida, Ryan MacDonald, Florence D’Orazi and Ashley L. Siegel for comments on this chapter.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeremy Ng
    • 1
  • Peter D. Currie
    • 1
  • Patricia R. Jusuf
    • 1
  1. 1.Australian Regenerative Medicine InstituteMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

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